1. The Laws of New York
  2. Consolidated Laws
  3. Criminal Procedure
  4. Part 2: The Principal Proceedings
  5. Title H: Preliminary Proceedings In Local Criminal Court
  6. Article 180: Proceedings Upon Felony Complaint From Arraignment Thereon Through Disposition Thereof


Section 180.75 Proceedings upon felony complaint; juvenile offender

Criminal Procedure (CPL)

  * 1. When a juvenile offender or adolescent offender is arraigned before the youth part of a superior court or the most accessible magistrate designated by the appellate division of the supreme court in the applicable department to act as a youth part, the provisions of article seven hundred twenty-two of this chapter shall apply in lieu of the provisions of sections 180.30, 180.50 and 180.70 of this article.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019

  * 2. If the defendant waives a hearing upon the felony complaint, the court must order that the defendant be held for the action of the grand jury of the appropriate superior court with respect to the charge or charges contained in the felony complaint. In such case the court must promptly transmit to such superior court the order, the felony complaint, the supporting depositions and all other pertinent documents. Until such papers are received by the superior court, the action is deemed to be still pending in the local criminal court.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019

  * 3. If there be a hearing, then at the conclusion of the hearing, the court must dispose of the felony complaint as follows:

  (a) If there is reasonable cause to believe that the defendant committed a crime for which a person under the age of sixteen is criminally responsible, the court must order that the defendant be held for the action of a grand jury of the appropriate superior court, and it must promptly transmit to such superior court the order, the felony complaint, the supporting depositions and all other pertinent documents. Until such papers are received by the superior court, the action is deemed to be still pending in the local criminal court; or

  (b) If there is not reasonable cause to believe that the defendant committed a crime for which a person under the age of sixteen is criminally responsible but there is reasonable cause to believe that the defendant is a "juvenile delinquent" as defined in subdivision one of section 301.2 of the family court act, the court must specify the act or acts it found reasonable cause to believe the defendant did and direct that the action be removed to the family court in accordance with the provisions of article seven hundred twenty-five of this chapter; or

  (c) If there is not reasonable cause to believe that the defendant committed any criminal act, the court must dismiss the felony complaint and discharge the defendant from custody if he is in custody, or if he is at liberty on bail, it must exonerate the bail.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019

  * 4. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions two and three of this section, a local criminal court shall, at the request of the district attorney, order removal of an action against a juvenile offender to the family court pursuant to the provisions of article seven hundred twenty-five of this chapter if, upon consideration of the criteria specified in subdivision two of section 210.43 of this chapter, it is determined that to do so would be in the interests of justice. Where, however, the felony complaint charges the juvenile offender with murder in the second degree as defined in section 125.25 of the penal law, rape in the first degree as defined in subdivision one of section 130.35 of the penal law, criminal sexual act in the first degree as defined in subdivision one of section 130.50 of the penal law, or an armed felony as defined in paragraph (a) of subdivision forty-one of section 1.20 of this chapter, a determination that such action be removed to the family court shall, in addition, be based upon a finding of one or more of the following factors: (i) mitigating circumstances that bear directly upon the manner in which the crime was committed; or (ii) where the defendant was not the sole participant in the crime, the defendant's participation was relatively minor although not so minor as to constitute a defense to the prosecution; or (iii) possible deficiencies in proof of the crime.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019

  * 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision two, three, or four, if a currently undetermined felony complaint against a juvenile offender is pending in a local criminal court, and the defendant has not waived a hearing pursuant to subdivision two and a hearing pursuant to subdivision three has not commenced, the defendant may move in the superior court which would exercise the trial jurisdiction of the offense or offenses charged were an indictment therefor to result, to remove the action to family court. The procedural rules of subdivisions one and two of section 210.45 of this chapter are applicable to a motion pursuant to this subdivision. Upon such motion, the superior court shall be authorized to sit as a local criminal court to exercise the preliminary jurisdiction specified in subdivisions two and three of this section, and shall proceed and determine the motion as provided in section 210.43 of this chapter; provided, however, that the exception provisions of paragraph (b) of subdivision one of such section 210.43 shall not apply when there is not reasonable cause to believe that the juvenile offender committed one or more of the crimes enumerated therein, and in such event the provisions of paragraph (a) thereof shall apply.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019

  * 6. (a) If the court orders removal of the action to family court, it shall state on the record the factor or factors upon which its determination is based, and the court shall give its reasons for removal in detail and not in conclusory terms.

  (b) the district attorney shall state upon the record the reasons for his consent to removal of the action to the family court where such consent is required. The reasons shall be stated in detail and not in conclusory terms.

  (c) For the purpose of making a determination pursuant to subdivision four or five, the court may make such inquiry as it deems necessary. Any evidence which is not legally privileged may be introduced. If the defendant testifies, his testimony may not be introduced against him in any future proceeding, except to impeach his testimony at such future proceeding as inconsistent prior testimony.

  (d) Where a motion for removal by the defendant pursuant to subdivision five has been denied, no further motion pursuant to this section or section 210.43 of this chapter may be made by the juvenile offender with respect to the same offense or offenses.

  (e) Except as provided by paragraph (f), this section shall not be construed to limit the powers of the grand jury.

  (f) Where a motion by the defendant pursuant to subdivision five has been granted, there shall be no further proceedings against the juvenile offender in any local or superior criminal court for the offense or offenses which were the subject of the removal order.

  * NB See ch. 59/2017 Pt. WWW § 106 sb b for further contingencies for 10/1/2019