## Legislation

SECTION 485.05

Hate crimes

Penal (PEN) CHAPTER 40, PART 4, TITLE Y, ARTICLE 485

§ 485.05 Hate crimes.

1. A person commits a hate crime when he or she commits a specified

offense and either:

(a) intentionally selects the person against whom the offense is

committed or intended to be committed in whole or in substantial part

because of a belief or perception regarding the race, color, national

origin, ancestry, gender, gender identity or expression, religion,

religious practice, age, disability or sexual orientation of a person,

regardless of whether the belief or perception is correct, or

(b) intentionally commits the act or acts constituting the offense in

whole or in substantial part because of a belief or perception regarding

the race, color, national origin, ancestry, gender, gender identity or

expression, religion, religious practice, age, disability or sexual

orientation of a person, regardless of whether the belief or perception

is correct.

2. Proof of race, color, national origin, ancestry, gender, gender

identity or expression, religion, religious practice, age, disability or

sexual orientation of the defendant, the victim or of both the defendant

and the victim does not, by itself, constitute legally sufficient

evidence satisfying the people's burden under paragraph (a) or (b) of

subdivision one of this section.

* 3. A "specified offense" is an offense defined by any of the

following provisions of this chapter: section 120.00 (assault in the

third degree); section 120.05 (assault in the second degree); section

120.06 (gang assault in the second degree); section 120.07 (gang assault

in the first degree); section 120.10 (assault in the first degree);

section 120.12 (aggravated assault upon a person less than eleven years

old); section 120.13 (menacing in the first degree); section 120.14

(menacing in the second degree); section 120.15 (menacing in the third

degree); section 120.20 (reckless endangerment in the second degree);

section 120.25 (reckless endangerment in the first degree); section

121.11 (criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation); section

121.12 (strangulation in the second degree); section 121.13

(strangulation in the first degree); subdivision one of section 125.15

(manslaughter in the second degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 125.20 (manslaughter in the first degree); section 125.25

(murder in the second degree); section 125.26 (aggravated murder);

section 125.27 (murder in the first degree); section 120.45 (stalking in

the fourth degree); section 120.50 (stalking in the third degree);

section 120.55 (stalking in the second degree); section 120.60 (stalking

in the first degree); section 130.20 (sexual misconduct); section 130.25

(rape in the third degree); section 130.30 (rape in the second degree);

section 130.35 (rape in the first degree); section 130.40 (criminal

sexual act in the third degree); section 130.45 (criminal sexual act in

the second degree); section 130.50 (criminal sexual act in the first

degree); section 130.52 (forcible touching); section 130.53 (persistent

sexual abuse); section 130.55 (sexual abuse in the third degree);

section 130.60 (sexual abuse in the second degree); section 130.65

(sexual abuse in the first degree); section 130.65-a (aggravated sexual

abuse in the fourth degree); section 130.66 (aggravated sexual abuse in

the third degree); section 130.67 (aggravated sexual abuse in the second

degree); section 130.70 (aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree);

section 135.05 (unlawful imprisonment in the second degree); section

135.10 (unlawful imprisonment in the first degree); section 135.20

(kidnapping in the second degree); section 135.25 (kidnapping in the

first degree); section 135.60 (coercion in the third degree); section

135.61 (coercion in the second degree); section 135.65 (coercion in the

first degree); section 140.10 (criminal trespass in the third degree);

section 140.15 (criminal trespass in the second degree); section 140.17

(criminal trespass in the first degree); section 140.20 (burglary in the

third degree); section 140.25 (burglary in the second degree); section

140.30 (burglary in the first degree); section 145.00 (criminal mischief

in the fourth degree); section 145.05 (criminal mischief in the third

degree); section 145.10 (criminal mischief in the second degree);

section 145.12 (criminal mischief in the first degree); section 150.05

(arson in the fourth degree); section 150.10 (arson in the third

degree); section 150.15 (arson in the second degree); section 150.20

(arson in the first degree); section 155.25 (petit larceny); section

155.30 (grand larceny in the fourth degree); section 155.35 (grand

larceny in the third degree); section 155.40 (grand larceny in the

second degree); section 155.42 (grand larceny in the first degree);

section 160.05 (robbery in the third degree); section 160.10 (robbery in

the second degree); section 160.15 (robbery in the first degree);

section 230.34 (sex trafficking); section 230.34-a (sex trafficking of a

child); section 240.25 (harassment in the first degree); subdivision

one, two or four of section 240.30 (aggravated harassment in the second

degree); section 240.50 (falsely reporting an incident in the third

degree); section 240.55 (falsely reporting an incident in the second

degree); section 240.60 (falsely reporting an incident in the first

degree); subdivision one of section 265.03 (criminal possession of a

weapon in the second degree); subdivision one of section 265.04

(criminal possession of a weapon in the first degree); section 490.10

(soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the second

degree); section 490.15 (soliciting or providing support for an act of

terrorism in the first degree); section 490.20 (making a terroristic

threat); section 490.25 (crime of terrorism); section 490.30 (hindering

prosecution of terrorism in the second degree); section 490.35

(hindering prosecution of terrorism in the first degree); section 490.37

(criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the

third degree); section 490.40 (criminal possession of a chemical weapon

or biological weapon in the second degree); section 490.45 (criminal

possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the first

degree); section 490.47 (criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological

weapon in the third degree); section 490.50 (criminal use of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the second degree); section 490.55

(criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the first

degree); or any attempt or conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing

offenses.

* NB Effective until September 1, 2024

* 3. A "specified offense" is an offense defined by any of the

following provisions of this chapter: section 120.00 (assault in the

third degree); section 120.05 (assault in the second degree); section

120.06 (gang assault in the second degree); section 120.07 (gang assault

in the first degree); section 120.10 (assault in the first degree);

section 120.12 (aggravated assault upon a person less than eleven years

old); section 120.13 (menacing in the first degree); section 120.14

(menacing in the second degree); section 120.15 (menacing in the third

degree); section 120.20 (reckless endangerment in the second degree);

section 120.25 (reckless endangerment in the first degree); section

121.11 (criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation); section

121.12 (strangulation in the second degree); section 121.13

(strangulation in the first degree); subdivision one of section 125.15

(manslaughter in the second degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 125.20 (manslaughter in the first degree); section 125.25

(murder in the second degree); section 125.26 (aggravated murder);

section 125.27 (murder in the first degree); section 120.45 (stalking in

the fourth degree); section 120.50 (stalking in the third degree);

section 120.55 (stalking in the second degree); section 120.60 (stalking

in the first degree); section 130.20 (sexual misconduct); section 130.25

(rape in the third degree); section 130.30 (rape in the second degree);

section 130.35 (rape in the first degree); former section 130.40; former

section 130.45; former section 130.50; section 130.52 (forcible

touching); section 130.53 (persistent sexual abuse); section 130.55

(sexual abuse in the third degree); section 130.60 (sexual abuse in the

second degree); section 130.65 (sexual abuse in the first degree);

section 130.65-a (aggravated sexual abuse in the fourth degree); section

130.66 (aggravated sexual abuse in the third degree); section 130.67

(aggravated sexual abuse in the second degree); section 130.70

(aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree); section 135.05 (unlawful

imprisonment in the second degree); section 135.10 (unlawful

imprisonment in the first degree); section 135.20 (kidnapping in the

second degree); section 135.25 (kidnapping in the first degree); section

135.60 (coercion in the third degree); section 135.61 (coercion in the

second degree); section 135.65 (coercion in the first degree); section

140.10 (criminal trespass in the third degree); section 140.15 (criminal

trespass in the second degree); section 140.17 (criminal trespass in the

first degree); section 140.20 (burglary in the third degree); section

140.25 (burglary in the second degree); section 140.30 (burglary in the

first degree); section 145.00 (criminal mischief in the fourth degree);

section 145.05 (criminal mischief in the third degree); section 145.10

(criminal mischief in the second degree); section 145.12 (criminal

mischief in the first degree); section 150.05 (arson in the fourth

degree); section 150.10 (arson in the third degree); section 150.15

(arson in the second degree); section 150.20 (arson in the first

degree); section 155.25 (petit larceny); section 155.30 (grand larceny

in the fourth degree); section 155.35 (grand larceny in the third

degree); section 155.40 (grand larceny in the second degree); section

155.42 (grand larceny in the first degree); section 160.05 (robbery in

the third degree); section 160.10 (robbery in the second degree);

section 160.15 (robbery in the first degree); section 230.34 (sex

trafficking); section 230.34-a (sex trafficking of a child); section

240.25 (harassment in the first degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 240.30 (aggravated harassment in the second degree); section

240.50 (falsely reporting an incident in the third degree); section

240.55 (falsely reporting an incident in the second degree); section

240.60 (falsely reporting an incident in the first degree); subdivision

one of section 265.03 (criminal possession of a weapon in the second

degree); subdivision one of section 265.04 (criminal possession of a

weapon in the first degree); section 490.10 (soliciting or providing

support for an act of terrorism in the second degree); section 490.15

(soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the first

degree); section 490.20 (making a terroristic threat); section 490.25

(crime of terrorism); section 490.30 (hindering prosecution of terrorism

in the second degree); section 490.35 (hindering prosecution of

terrorism in the first degree); section 490.37 (criminal possession of a

chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third degree); section

490.40 (criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in

the second degree); section 490.45 (criminal possession of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the first degree); section 490.47

(criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third

degree); section 490.50 (criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological

weapon in the second degree); section 490.55 (criminal use of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the first degree); or any attempt or

conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

* NB Effective September 1, 2024

4. For purposes of this section:

(a) the term "age" means sixty years old or more;

(b) the term "disability" means a physical or mental impairment that

substantially limits a major life activity;

(c) the term "gender identity or expression" means a person's actual

or perceived gender-related identity, appearance, behavior, expression,

or other gender-related characteristic regardless of the sex assigned to

that person at birth, including, but not limited to, the status of being

transgender.

1. A person commits a hate crime when he or she commits a specified

offense and either:

(a) intentionally selects the person against whom the offense is

committed or intended to be committed in whole or in substantial part

because of a belief or perception regarding the race, color, national

origin, ancestry, gender, gender identity or expression, religion,

religious practice, age, disability or sexual orientation of a person,

regardless of whether the belief or perception is correct, or

(b) intentionally commits the act or acts constituting the offense in

whole or in substantial part because of a belief or perception regarding

the race, color, national origin, ancestry, gender, gender identity or

expression, religion, religious practice, age, disability or sexual

orientation of a person, regardless of whether the belief or perception

is correct.

2. Proof of race, color, national origin, ancestry, gender, gender

identity or expression, religion, religious practice, age, disability or

sexual orientation of the defendant, the victim or of both the defendant

and the victim does not, by itself, constitute legally sufficient

evidence satisfying the people's burden under paragraph (a) or (b) of

subdivision one of this section.

* 3. A "specified offense" is an offense defined by any of the

following provisions of this chapter: section 120.00 (assault in the

third degree); section 120.05 (assault in the second degree); section

120.06 (gang assault in the second degree); section 120.07 (gang assault

in the first degree); section 120.10 (assault in the first degree);

section 120.12 (aggravated assault upon a person less than eleven years

old); section 120.13 (menacing in the first degree); section 120.14

(menacing in the second degree); section 120.15 (menacing in the third

degree); section 120.20 (reckless endangerment in the second degree);

section 120.25 (reckless endangerment in the first degree); section

121.11 (criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation); section

121.12 (strangulation in the second degree); section 121.13

(strangulation in the first degree); subdivision one of section 125.15

(manslaughter in the second degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 125.20 (manslaughter in the first degree); section 125.25

(murder in the second degree); section 125.26 (aggravated murder);

section 125.27 (murder in the first degree); section 120.45 (stalking in

the fourth degree); section 120.50 (stalking in the third degree);

section 120.55 (stalking in the second degree); section 120.60 (stalking

in the first degree); section 130.20 (sexual misconduct); section 130.25

(rape in the third degree); section 130.30 (rape in the second degree);

section 130.35 (rape in the first degree); section 130.40 (criminal

sexual act in the third degree); section 130.45 (criminal sexual act in

the second degree); section 130.50 (criminal sexual act in the first

degree); section 130.52 (forcible touching); section 130.53 (persistent

sexual abuse); section 130.55 (sexual abuse in the third degree);

section 130.60 (sexual abuse in the second degree); section 130.65

(sexual abuse in the first degree); section 130.65-a (aggravated sexual

abuse in the fourth degree); section 130.66 (aggravated sexual abuse in

the third degree); section 130.67 (aggravated sexual abuse in the second

degree); section 130.70 (aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree);

section 135.05 (unlawful imprisonment in the second degree); section

135.10 (unlawful imprisonment in the first degree); section 135.20

(kidnapping in the second degree); section 135.25 (kidnapping in the

first degree); section 135.60 (coercion in the third degree); section

135.61 (coercion in the second degree); section 135.65 (coercion in the

first degree); section 140.10 (criminal trespass in the third degree);

section 140.15 (criminal trespass in the second degree); section 140.17

(criminal trespass in the first degree); section 140.20 (burglary in the

third degree); section 140.25 (burglary in the second degree); section

140.30 (burglary in the first degree); section 145.00 (criminal mischief

in the fourth degree); section 145.05 (criminal mischief in the third

degree); section 145.10 (criminal mischief in the second degree);

section 145.12 (criminal mischief in the first degree); section 150.05

(arson in the fourth degree); section 150.10 (arson in the third

degree); section 150.15 (arson in the second degree); section 150.20

(arson in the first degree); section 155.25 (petit larceny); section

155.30 (grand larceny in the fourth degree); section 155.35 (grand

larceny in the third degree); section 155.40 (grand larceny in the

second degree); section 155.42 (grand larceny in the first degree);

section 160.05 (robbery in the third degree); section 160.10 (robbery in

the second degree); section 160.15 (robbery in the first degree);

section 230.34 (sex trafficking); section 230.34-a (sex trafficking of a

child); section 240.25 (harassment in the first degree); subdivision

one, two or four of section 240.30 (aggravated harassment in the second

degree); section 240.50 (falsely reporting an incident in the third

degree); section 240.55 (falsely reporting an incident in the second

degree); section 240.60 (falsely reporting an incident in the first

degree); subdivision one of section 265.03 (criminal possession of a

weapon in the second degree); subdivision one of section 265.04

(criminal possession of a weapon in the first degree); section 490.10

(soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the second

degree); section 490.15 (soliciting or providing support for an act of

terrorism in the first degree); section 490.20 (making a terroristic

threat); section 490.25 (crime of terrorism); section 490.30 (hindering

prosecution of terrorism in the second degree); section 490.35

(hindering prosecution of terrorism in the first degree); section 490.37

(criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the

third degree); section 490.40 (criminal possession of a chemical weapon

or biological weapon in the second degree); section 490.45 (criminal

possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the first

degree); section 490.47 (criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological

weapon in the third degree); section 490.50 (criminal use of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the second degree); section 490.55

(criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the first

degree); or any attempt or conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing

offenses.

* NB Effective until September 1, 2024

* 3. A "specified offense" is an offense defined by any of the

following provisions of this chapter: section 120.00 (assault in the

third degree); section 120.05 (assault in the second degree); section

120.06 (gang assault in the second degree); section 120.07 (gang assault

in the first degree); section 120.10 (assault in the first degree);

section 120.12 (aggravated assault upon a person less than eleven years

old); section 120.13 (menacing in the first degree); section 120.14

(menacing in the second degree); section 120.15 (menacing in the third

degree); section 120.20 (reckless endangerment in the second degree);

section 120.25 (reckless endangerment in the first degree); section

121.11 (criminal obstruction of breathing or blood circulation); section

121.12 (strangulation in the second degree); section 121.13

(strangulation in the first degree); subdivision one of section 125.15

(manslaughter in the second degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 125.20 (manslaughter in the first degree); section 125.25

(murder in the second degree); section 125.26 (aggravated murder);

section 125.27 (murder in the first degree); section 120.45 (stalking in

the fourth degree); section 120.50 (stalking in the third degree);

section 120.55 (stalking in the second degree); section 120.60 (stalking

in the first degree); section 130.20 (sexual misconduct); section 130.25

(rape in the third degree); section 130.30 (rape in the second degree);

section 130.35 (rape in the first degree); former section 130.40; former

section 130.45; former section 130.50; section 130.52 (forcible

touching); section 130.53 (persistent sexual abuse); section 130.55

(sexual abuse in the third degree); section 130.60 (sexual abuse in the

second degree); section 130.65 (sexual abuse in the first degree);

section 130.65-a (aggravated sexual abuse in the fourth degree); section

130.66 (aggravated sexual abuse in the third degree); section 130.67

(aggravated sexual abuse in the second degree); section 130.70

(aggravated sexual abuse in the first degree); section 135.05 (unlawful

imprisonment in the second degree); section 135.10 (unlawful

imprisonment in the first degree); section 135.20 (kidnapping in the

second degree); section 135.25 (kidnapping in the first degree); section

135.60 (coercion in the third degree); section 135.61 (coercion in the

second degree); section 135.65 (coercion in the first degree); section

140.10 (criminal trespass in the third degree); section 140.15 (criminal

trespass in the second degree); section 140.17 (criminal trespass in the

first degree); section 140.20 (burglary in the third degree); section

140.25 (burglary in the second degree); section 140.30 (burglary in the

first degree); section 145.00 (criminal mischief in the fourth degree);

section 145.05 (criminal mischief in the third degree); section 145.10

(criminal mischief in the second degree); section 145.12 (criminal

mischief in the first degree); section 150.05 (arson in the fourth

degree); section 150.10 (arson in the third degree); section 150.15

(arson in the second degree); section 150.20 (arson in the first

degree); section 155.25 (petit larceny); section 155.30 (grand larceny

in the fourth degree); section 155.35 (grand larceny in the third

degree); section 155.40 (grand larceny in the second degree); section

155.42 (grand larceny in the first degree); section 160.05 (robbery in

the third degree); section 160.10 (robbery in the second degree);

section 160.15 (robbery in the first degree); section 230.34 (sex

trafficking); section 230.34-a (sex trafficking of a child); section

240.25 (harassment in the first degree); subdivision one, two or four of

section 240.30 (aggravated harassment in the second degree); section

240.50 (falsely reporting an incident in the third degree); section

240.55 (falsely reporting an incident in the second degree); section

240.60 (falsely reporting an incident in the first degree); subdivision

one of section 265.03 (criminal possession of a weapon in the second

degree); subdivision one of section 265.04 (criminal possession of a

weapon in the first degree); section 490.10 (soliciting or providing

support for an act of terrorism in the second degree); section 490.15

(soliciting or providing support for an act of terrorism in the first

degree); section 490.20 (making a terroristic threat); section 490.25

(crime of terrorism); section 490.30 (hindering prosecution of terrorism

in the second degree); section 490.35 (hindering prosecution of

terrorism in the first degree); section 490.37 (criminal possession of a

chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third degree); section

490.40 (criminal possession of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in

the second degree); section 490.45 (criminal possession of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the first degree); section 490.47

(criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological weapon in the third

degree); section 490.50 (criminal use of a chemical weapon or biological

weapon in the second degree); section 490.55 (criminal use of a chemical

weapon or biological weapon in the first degree); or any attempt or

conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses.

* NB Effective September 1, 2024

4. For purposes of this section:

(a) the term "age" means sixty years old or more;

(b) the term "disability" means a physical or mental impairment that

substantially limits a major life activity;

(c) the term "gender identity or expression" means a person's actual

or perceived gender-related identity, appearance, behavior, expression,

or other gender-related characteristic regardless of the sex assigned to

that person at birth, including, but not limited to, the status of being

transgender.