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CHAPTER 71
Vehicle & Traffic
CHAPTER 775
AN ACT relating to motor vehicles, motor cycles, and highway traffic,

constituting chapter seventy-one of the consolidated laws
Became a law April 23, 1959, with the approval of the Governor. Passed,

by a majority vote, three-fifths being present
The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly,
to enact as follows:

CHAPTER SEVENTY-ONE OF THE CONSOLIDATED LAWS
Title Section
I. Words and phrases defined .................................... 100
Article
1. Words and phrases defined .................................... 100
II. Department of motor vehicles; commissioner ................... 200
Article
2. Department of motor vehicles; commissioner ................... 200
2-A. Adjudication of traffic infractions .......................... 225
2-B. Adjudication of parking infractions .......................... 235
3. Exemption of non-resident owners and operators ............... 250
3-A. Administrative appeals ....................................... 260
III. Safety responsibility; financial security; equipment;

inspection; size and weight; and other provisions ...........300
Article
4. Application of this title .................................... 300
5. Periodic inspection of motor vehicles ........................ 301
5-A. ............................................................. 309
6. Motor vehicle financial security act ......................... 310
7. Motor vehicle safety responsibility act ...................... 330
8. Indemnity bonds or insurance policies on vehicles

transporting passengers for hire ............................370
9. Equipment of motor vehicles and motorcycles .................. 375
10. Dimensions and weights of vehicles ........................... 385
11. Civil liability .............................................. 388
12. Other provisions ............................................. 390
12-A. Motor vehicle repair shop registration act ................... 398
12-B. Approval of motor vehicle accident prevention courses ...... 399-a
12-C. Accident prevention course internet, and other technology pilot

program .................................................. 399-k
12-D. Pre-licensing course internet pilot program ................ 399-p
IV. Registration of vehicles ..................................... 400
Article
13. Application of this title .................................... 400
14. Registration of motor vehicles ............................... 401
14-A. Apportionment or allocation of registration fee agreement .... 405
14-B. Bus taxation proration and reciprocity agreement ............. 406
15. Registration of motorcycles .................................. 410
15-A. Reciprocity agreements for the recognition of the agricultural

truck registration class ................................... 413
16. Registration of dealers and transportors ..................... 415
17. Other provisions relating to registration and possession ..... 420
17-A. Franchised motor vehicle dealer act .......................... 460
17-A. Non-driver identification card ............................... 490
17-B. Interjurisdictional pre-arranged for-hire vehicle

operation ................................................. 498
17-C. Metropolitan commuter transportation district supplemental

registration fee .......................................... 499
V. Drivers' licenses ............................................ 500
Article
18. Application of this title .................................... 500
19. Licensing of drivers ......................................... 501
19-A. Special requirements for bus drivers ....................... 509-a
19-B. Special requirements for commercial motor carriers ......... 509-p
20. Suspension and revocation .................................... 510
21. Alcohol and drug rehabilitation program ...................... 520
21-A. Restricted use licenses ...................................... 530
21-B. Medical Advisory Board ....................................... 540
21-C. Certificates for Escort Vehicles ............................. 546
VI. Accidents and accident reports ............................... 600
Article
22. Accidents and accident reports ............................... 600
VII. Rules of the road ........................................... 1100
Article
23. Obedience to and effect of traffic laws ..................... 1100
24. Traffic signs, signals and markings ......................... 1110
25. Driving on right side of roadway, overtaking and

passing, etc ...............................................1120
26. Right of way ................................................ 1140
27. Pedestrians' rights and duties .............................. 1150
28. Turning and starting and signals on stopping and turning .... 1160
29. Special stops required ...................................... 1170
30. Speed restrictions .......................................... 1180
31. Alcohol and drug-related offenses and procedures

applicable thereto .........................................1192
32. Stopping, standing, and parking ............................. 1200
33. Miscellaneous rules ......................................... 1210
34. Operation of bicycles and play devices ...................... 1230
34-A. Operation of motorcycles .................................... 1250
34-B. Riding horses ............................................... 1260
34-C. Operation of electric personal assistive mobility devices ... 1270
34-D. Operation of electric scooters .............................. 1280
VIII. Respective powers of state and local authorities ............ 1600
Article
35. Uniform statewide application ............................... 1600
36. State department of transportation .......................... 1610
37. Regulation of traffic by department of transportation

and other state authorities ................................1620
38. Regulation of traffic by public authorities

and commissions ............................................1630
39. Regulation of traffic by cities and villages ................ 1640
40. Regulation of traffic by county superintendent

of highways ................................................1650
41. Regulation of traffic by towns .............................. 1660
42. Regulation of traffic by local authorities and

school districts ...........................................1670
43. Traffic safety boards ....................................... 1672
44. Traffic-control devices ..................................... 1680
44-A. Authority of the Nassau and Suffolk county district court and

Buffalo city court judicial hearing officers .............. 1690
44-B. Transportation network company services ..................... 1691
44-C. Central business district tolling program ................... 1701
IX. Penalties and disposition of fines and forfeitures .......... 1800
Article
45. Penalties and disposition of fines and forfeitures .......... 1800
X. Uniform vehicle certificate of title act .................... 2101
Article
46. Uniform vehicle certificate of title act .................... 2101
XI. Registration of snowmobiles, motor-boats and

limited use vehicles .......................................2220
Article
47. Registration of snowmobiles ................................. 2220
48. Registration of vessels ..................................... 2250
48-A. Registration of limited use vehicles ........................ 2260
48-B. Registration of All Terrain vehicles ........................ 2280
48-C. Rules for operation of All Terrain vehicles ................. 2400
XII. Effect of and short title of chapter; saving clauses;

laws repealed; time to take effect .........................3000
Article
49. Effect of and short title of chapter ........................ 3000
50. Saving clauses; laws repealed; time to take effect .......... 3010