senate Bill S2904A

Amended

Provides for the licensing of genetic counselors; creates the state board for genetic counseling

download pdf

Sponsor

Co-Sponsors

Bill Status


  • Introduced
  • In Committee
  • On Floor Calendar
    • Passed Senate
    • Passed Assembly
  • Delivered to Governor
  • Signed/Vetoed by Governor
view actions

actions

  • 24 / Jan / 2013
    • REFERRED TO HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 08 / Jan / 2014
    • REFERRED TO HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 25 / Feb / 2014
    • AMEND AND RECOMMIT TO HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 25 / Feb / 2014
    • PRINT NUMBER 2904A
  • 13 / Jun / 2014
    • AMEND AND RECOMMIT TO HIGHER EDUCATION
  • 13 / Jun / 2014
    • PRINT NUMBER 2904B

Summary

Provides for the licensing of genetic counselors; creates the state committee for genetic counseling.

do you support this bill?

Bill Details

See Assembly Version of this Bill:
A3350A
Versions:
S2904
S2904A
S2904B
Legislative Cycle:
2013-2014
Current Committee:
Senate Higher Education
Law Section:
Education Law
Laws Affected:
Add Art 142 ยงยง7050 - 7058, Ed L
Versions Introduced in Previous Legislative Cycles:
2013-2014: S3514
2011-2012: S3514, S6246, A5641
2009-2010: S2757, S4276, A5766
2007-2008: S4205B, A3556A

Sponsor Memo

BILL NUMBER:S2904A

TITLE OF BILL: An act to amend the education law, in relation to
licensing of genetic counselors

PURPOSE: This legislation would establish genetic counseling as a
licensed profession.

SUMMARY OF PROVISIONS: This legislation would establish genetic
counseling as a licensed profession in New York State. The bill would
provide for licensure, provisional licensure, professional standards,
continuing education requirements, conduct and registration of genetic
counselors.

JUSTIFICATION: In the last decade, advances in technology and the
understanding of human genetics have rapidly expanded the number of
tests available to directly test for genetic conditions and genetic
susceptibility to common diseases like cancer, diabetes and heart
disease. New methods in gene sequencing have made mapping an
individual's entire genome a reality. This technology promises to
deliver individualized medicine to the public in the very near future.

Interpretation of genetic/genomic test results is complex and requires
specialized knowledge and communication skills to: determine whether
the patient wants and needs the test; ensure that the patient is
taking the most appropriate genetic/genomic test; provide the patient
with necessary information to obtain informed consent required by New
York State law; facilitate proper medical management based on the
patient's genetic/genomic test results; and appropriately disseminate
the genetic information to the patient's health care providers and
at-risk family members. Genetic counselors who have met the
educational requirements and certification standards as established by
this legislation are ensured of possessing these requisite skills.

New Yorkers deserve a competent health care workforce that can help to
apply genomic information to the public with safety and human rights
in mind. The State of New York has a long tradition of protecting the
safety and health of individual recipients of professional services by
setting high standards for the licensing and conduct of providers of
such services. This legislation would ensure the benefits of
genetic/genomic information for those who seek it, by ensuring that
genetic counselors are licensed and accountable.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY: 2013: S. 2904/A.3350; 2011-12 S.3514/A.5641;
2009-10 S.2757/A.5766; 2007-08, S.1858-A/A.3556A; 2005-06,
S.4532/A.8065; 2003-04 S.287A/A.10539; 2001-02 S.2471/A.2360; 2000
S.7563/A.9876.

FISCAL IMPLICATIONS: Any fiscal implications related to licensure of
the genetic counselors, would be offset through license fees.

EFFECTIVE DATE: Immediately, with provisions.

view bill text
                    S T A T E   O F   N E W   Y O R K
________________________________________________________________________

    S. 2904--A                                            A. 3350--A

                       2013-2014 Regular Sessions

                      S E N A T E - A S S E M B L Y

                            January 24, 2013
                               ___________

IN  SENATE  --  Introduced  by  Sens.  LAVALLE, LARKIN -- read twice and
  ordered printed, and when printed to be committed to the Committee  on
  Higher  Education  -- recommitted to the Committee on Higher Education
  in accordance with Senate Rule 6, sec. 8 -- committee discharged, bill
  amended, ordered reprinted as amended and recommitted to said  commit-
  tee

IN  ASSEMBLY  -- Introduced by M. of A. SWEENEY, MILLMAN, PAULIN, GALEF,
  ROSENTHAL -- Multi-Sponsored by -- M.  of A. DINOWITZ, HOOPER, MARKEY,
  WEISENBERG -- read once and referred to the Committee on Higher Educa-
  tion -- recommitted to the Committee on Higher Education in accordance
  with Assembly Rule 3, sec. 2 -- committee  discharged,  bill  amended,
  ordered reprinted as amended and recommitted to said committee

AN  ACT  to amend the education law, in relation to licensing of genetic
  counselors

  THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, REPRESENTED IN SENATE AND  ASSEM-
BLY, DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS:

  Section  1.   The education law is amended by adding a new article 142
to read as follows:
                               ARTICLE 142
                           GENETIC COUNSELING
SECTION 7050. INTRODUCTION.
        7051. DEFINITIONS.
        7052. THE PRACTICE OF GENETIC COUNSELING.
        7053. STATE COMMITTEE FOR GENETIC COUNSELING.
        7054. REQUIREMENTS FOR A PROFESSIONAL LICENSE.
        7055. EXEMPT PERSONS.
        7056. LIMITED PERMITS.
        7057. VISITING GENETIC COUNSELORS.
        7058. TELEHEALTH SERVICES.

 EXPLANATION--Matter in ITALICS (underscored) is new; matter in brackets
                      [ ] is old law to be omitted.
                                                           LBD04709-02-4

S. 2904--A                          2                         A. 3350--A

  S 7050. INTRODUCTION. THIS ARTICLE APPLIES TO THE LICENSING OF GENETIC
COUNSELORS. THE GENERAL PROVISIONS  FOR  ALL  PROFESSIONS  CONTAINED  IN
ARTICLE ONE HUNDRED THIRTY OF THIS TITLE APPLY TO THIS ARTICLE.
  S 7051. DEFINITIONS. AS USED IN THIS ARTICLE:
  1.  THE  TERM "GENETIC COUNSELOR" SHALL MEAN A HEALTH PROFESSIONAL WHO
IS ACADEMICALLY AND CLINICALLY PREPARED TO  PROVIDE  GENETIC  COUNSELING
SERVICES  TO  INDIVIDUALS  AND  FAMILIES  SEEKING  INFORMATION ABOUT THE
OCCURRENCE, RISK OF OCCURRENCE OR RECURRENCE, OF GENETIC/MEDICAL  CONDI-
TIONS AND DISEASES.
  2.  THE TERM "LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELOR" SHALL MEAN A GENETIC COUNSE-
LOR LICENSED PURSUANT TO THIS ARTICLE.
  3. THE TERM "CERTIFIED GENETIC COUNSELOR" SHALL MEAN A GENETIC COUNSE-
LOR WITH A MASTER'S  DEGREE  IN  GENETIC  COUNSELING  FROM  AN  AMERICAN
COLLEGE  OF GENETIC COUNSELING ACCREDITED PROGRAM AND WHO HAS PASSED THE
CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF GENETIC COUNSELORS.
  S 7052. THE PRACTICE OF GENETIC COUNSELING. 1. THE "PRACTICE OF GENET-
IC COUNSELING" SHALL MEAN THE COMMUNICATION TO AND EDUCATION OF CLIENTS,
THEIR FAMILIES, OTHER HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS AND THE  GENERAL  PUBLIC
WITH  REGARDS  TO GENETIC TESTING, INDIVIDUAL FAMILY HISTORIES, OR OTHER
GENETIC, MEDICAL, AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH  THE  OCCUR-
RENCE,  RISK  OF  OCCURRENCE  OR  RECURRENCE, OF A GENETIC OR HEREDITARY
CONDITION OR BIRTH DEFECT IN A  COMPREHENSIVE,  UNDERSTANDABLE,  ETHICAL
MANNER.  A  PRACTITIONER  OF  GENETIC  COUNSELING  SHALL SEEK TO PROMOTE
DECISION-MAKING IN AN UNBIASED, NON-COERCIVE MANNER WHICH  RESPECTS  THE
INDIVIDUAL'S  CULTURE, LANGUAGE, TRADITION, LIFESTYLE, RELIGION, BELIEFS
AND VALUES.  GENETIC COUNSELING SHALL INCLUDE, BUT NOT  BE  LIMITED  TO,
THE FOLLOWING:
  (A)  OBTAIN  AND EVALUATE INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY, AND MEDICAL HISTORIES TO
DETERMINE GENETIC RISK FOR GENETIC/MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND DISEASES IN  A
PATIENT, HIS OR HER OFFSPRING, AND OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS;
  (B) DISCUSS THE FEATURES, NATURAL HISTORY, MEANS OF DIAGNOSIS, GENETIC
AND  ENVIRONMENTAL  FACTORS,  AND MANAGEMENT OF RISK FOR GENETIC/MEDICAL
CONDITIONS AND DISEASES;
  (C) IDENTIFY AND COORDINATE GENETIC LABORATORY TESTS AND  OTHER  DIAG-
NOSTIC STUDIES AS APPROPRIATE FOR THE GENETIC ASSESSMENT;
  (D)  INTEGRATE  GENETIC  LABORATORY  TEST RESULTS AND OTHER DIAGNOSTIC
STUDIES WITH PERSONAL AND FAMILY MEDICAL HISTORY TO ASSESS AND  COMMUNI-
CATE RISK FACTORS FOR GENETIC/MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND DISEASES;
  (E)  EXPLAIN THE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC LABORATORY TESTS AND
OTHER DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES AND THEIR RESULTS;
  (F) EVALUATE THE CLIENT'S OR FAMILY'S RESPONSES TO  THE  CONDITION  OR
RISK  OF RECURRENCE AND PROVIDE CLIENT-CENTERED COUNSELING AND ANTICIPA-
TORY GUIDANCE;
  (G) IDENTIFY AND UTILIZE COMMUNITY  RESOURCES  THAT  PROVIDE  MEDICAL,
EDUCATIONAL, FINANCIAL, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT AND ADVOCACY; AND
  (H)  PROVIDE WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICAL, GENETIC, AND COUNSELING
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS AND HEALTH  CARE  PROFESSIONALS  IN  ACCORDANCE
WITH MEDICAL STANDARDS AND PRIVACY LAWS.
  2.  NOTHING IN THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE CONSTRUED TO AUTHORIZE A LICENSED
GENETIC COUNSELOR TO DIAGNOSE OR TREAT ANY GENETIC DISEASE OR CONDITION.
LICENSED  GENETIC  COUNSELORS ARE REQUIRED TO ENSURE THAT PATIENT/CLIENT
CONFIDENTIALITY AND INFORMED  CONSENT  ARE  MAINTAINED  CONSISTENT  WITH
EXISTING FEDERAL AND STATE LAW.
  3.  PRACTICE  OF  GENETIC  COUNSELING,  AND USE OF THE TITLES "GENETIC
COUNSELOR" AND  "LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELOR" AND THE USE OF THE  LETTERS
"L.G.C."  AFTER  THE  NAME  SHALL  BE  RESERVED  EXCLUSIVELY  TO PERSONS

S. 2904--A                          3                         A. 3350--A

LICENSED PURSUANT TO THIS ARTICLE.   ONLY A PERSON  LICENSED  OR  EXEMPT
UNDER  THIS  ARTICLE  SHALL PRACTICE GENETIC COUNSELING OR USE THE TITLE
"GENETIC COUNSELOR". ONLY A PERSON LICENSED UNDER THIS ARTICLE SHALL USE
THE  TITLE "LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELOR" OR ANY OTHER DESIGNATION TENDING
TO IMPLY THAT A PERSON IS LICENSED TO PRACTICE GENETIC COUNSELING.
  S 7053.  STATE COMMITTEE FOR GENETIC COUNSELING. 1. A STATE  COMMITTEE
FOR  GENETIC  COUNSELING SHALL BE APPOINTED BY THE BOARD OF REGENTS UPON
THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE COMMISSIONER AND SHALL ASSIST  ON  MATTERS  OF
LICENSURE AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION SIXTY-FIVE
HUNDRED  EIGHT  OF THIS TITLE. NOTWITHSTANDING THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION
SIXTY-FIVE HUNDRED EIGHT OF THIS TITLE, THE COMMITTEE SHALL  ASSIST  THE
BOARD FOR MEDICINE SOLELY IN GENETIC COUNSELING MATTERS.  MEMBERS OF THE
FIRST  COMMITTEE NEED NOT BE LICENSED PRIOR TO THEIR APPOINTMENT TO SUCH
COMMITTEE. THE TERMS OF THE FIRST APPOINTED MEMBERS SHALL  BE  STAGGERED
SO  THAT  TWO  MEMBERS  ARE APPOINTED FOR THREE YEARS, THREE MEMBERS ARE
APPOINTED FOR FOUR YEARS AND TWO MEMBERS ARE APPOINTED FOR  FIVE  YEARS.
AN  EXECUTIVE SECRETARY TO THE COMMITTEE SHALL BE APPOINTED BY THE BOARD
OF REGENTS ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSIONER.
  2. THE COMMITTEE SHALL CONSIST OF SEVEN INDIVIDUALS, TO BE COMPOSED OF
THE FOLLOWING:
  (A) FIVE LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELORS WITH  A  MINIMUM  OF  FIVE  YEARS
EXPERIENCE,  INCLUDING  AT LEAST THREE YEARS OF FIELD EXPERIENCE WORKING
WITH PATIENTS OR THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN THE FIELD OF GENETIC COUNSELING;
  (B) ONE LICENSED MEDICAL GENETICIST; AND
  (C) A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PUBLIC AT LARGE.
  3. BOARD MEMBERS SHALL BE APPOINTED FOR TERMS OF FIVE YEARS. VACANCIES
SHORT OF A FULL TERM SHALL BE FILLED TO COMPLETE THE TIME  REMAINING  IN
THE TERM OF THE MEMBER VACATING.
  S  7054.  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  A  PROFESSIONAL LICENSE. TO QUALIFY FOR A
LICENSE AS A "LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELOR", AN  APPLICANT  SHALL  FULFILL
THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS:
  1. APPLICATION: FILE AN APPLICATION WITH THE DEPARTMENT;
  2.  EDUCATION:  HAVE RECEIVED A MASTER'S OR DOCTORAL DEGREE IN GENETIC
COUNSELING FROM A PROGRAM REGISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT, OR DETERMINED BY
THE DEPARTMENT TO BE THE SUBSTANTIAL EQUIVALENT, IN ACCORDANCE WITH  THE
COMMISSIONER'S  REGULATIONS.  APPROPRIATE COURSEWORK SHALL BE DETERMINED
IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE COMMISSIONER'S REGULATIONS ON RECOMMENDATIONS  OF
THE STATE COMMITTEE FOR GENETIC COUNSELING;
  3.  EXPERIENCE: HAVE GENETIC COUNSELING EXPERIENCE SATISFACTORY TO THE
DEPARTMENT AS DEFINED IN SECTION  SEVEN  THOUSAND  FIFTY-THREE  OF  THIS
ARTICLE  AND  IN  ACCORDANCE  WITH THE COMMISSIONER'S REGULATIONS.  SUCH
EXPERIENCE SHALL INCLUDE, BUT NOT BE LIMITED TO  REQUIRED  DOCUMENTATION
OF SUPERVISED CASE-WORK AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES DEEMED ACCEPT-
ABLE TO THE DEPARTMENT;
  4.  EXAMINATION:  PASS THE AMERICAN BOARD OF GENETIC COUNSELING (ABGC)
EXAMINATION FOR CERTIFICATION OR  HAVE  PASSED  A  PREVIOUS  EXAMINATION
ACCEPTED BY THE ABGC FOR CERTIFICATION;
  5. AGE: BE AT LEAST TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE;
  6.  CHARACTER: BE OF GOOD MORAL CHARACTER AS DETERMINED BY THE DEPART-
MENT;
  7. FEES: PAY A FEE OF THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS TO THE DEPARTMENT  FOR  AN
INITIAL LICENSE AND TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS FOR EACH SUBSEQUENT RE-REGISTRA-
TION OF A LICENSE; AND
  8.  CONTINUING  EDUCATION:    AT  THE TIME OF RE-REGISTRATION WITH THE
DEPARTMENT, EACH APPLICANT SHALL PRESENT SATISFACTORY  DOCUMENTATION  TO
THE  STATE COMMITTEE FOR GENETIC COUNSELING THAT SINCE LAST REGISTRATION

S. 2904--A                          4                         A. 3350--A

THEY ATTENDED THE EDUCATION PROGRAMS CONDUCTED BY THE  NATIONAL  SOCIETY
OF  GENETIC COUNSELORS IN CONCORDANCE WITH THE AMERICAN BOARD OF GENETIC
COUNSELING OR THE EQUIVALENT OF SUCH EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS   AS  APPROVED
BY  THE  STATE  COMMITTEE  FOR GENETIC COUNSELING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
COMMISSIONER'S REGULATIONS.  THE DEPARTMENT SHALL TRIENNIALLY  RE-REGIS-
TER  A  LICENSE  UPON  RECEIPT  OF  A RE-REGISTRATION APPLICATION.   THE
DEPARTMENT IS AUTHORIZED AND DIRECTED, IN CONSULTATION  WITH  THE  STATE
COMMITTEE  ESTABLISHED  IN  SECTION  SEVEN THOUSAND  FIFTY-THREE OF THIS
ARTICLE, TO ESTABLISH CRITERIA AS A  CONDITION OF LICENSURE RE-REGISTRA-
TION FOR  CONTINUING EDUCATION OF GENETIC  COUNSELORS INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO THE NUMBER OF  HOURS  AND/OR  EDUCATION  UNITS  NECESSARY  TO
COMPLETE CONTINUING EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS.
  S 7055. EXEMPT PERSONS. THIS ARTICLE DOES NOT PROHIBIT THE PRACTICE OF
GENETIC  COUNSELING  BY  LICENSED  PHYSICIANS  OR OTHER LICENSED PROFES-
SIONALS PURSUANT TO TITLE EIGHT OF THIS CHAPTER TO  OPERATE  WITHIN  THE
SCOPE OF THEIR PROFESSION'S LICENSE.  SUCH EXEMPT PERSONS ARE PROHIBITED
FROM  USING  THE  TITLE  "LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELOR" AS PROVIDED FOR IN
THIS ARTICLE.
  S 7056. LIMITED PERMITS. PERMITS LIMITED AS TO  ELIGIBILITY,  PRACTICE
AND  DURATION  SHALL BE ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT TO ELIGIBLE APPLICANTS,
AS FOLLOWS:
  1. THE DEPARTMENT MAY ISSUE A LIMITED PERMIT TO AN APPLICANT WHO MEETS
ALL QUALIFICATIONS FOR LICENSURE AS  A  GENETIC  COUNSELOR,  EXCEPT  THE
EXAMINATION  AND/OR  EXPERIENCE  REQUIREMENTS,  IN ACCORDANCE WITH REGU-
LATIONS PROMULGATED BY THE DEPARTMENT.
  2. THE DEPARTMENT MAY ISSUE LIMITED PERMITS TO FOREIGN TRAINED GENETIC
COUNSELORS THAT APPLY IF THEY MEET THE REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSURE PURSU-
ANT TO SECTION SEVEN THOUSAND FIFTY-FOUR OF THIS ARTICLE.
  3. LIMITED PERMITS SHALL BE FOR  ONE  YEAR.  LIMITED  PERMITS  MAY  BE
RE-REGISTERED,  AT  THE DISCRETION OF THE DEPARTMENT, FOR ONE ADDITIONAL
YEAR.
  4. AN INDIVIDUAL WITH A LIMITED PERMIT SHALL BE AUTHORIZED TO PRACTICE
GENETIC COUNSELING ONLY UNDER THE  SUPERVISION  OF  A  LICENSED  GENETIC
COUNSELOR,  OR  LICENSED PHYSICIAN. SUPERVISION SHALL MEAN THE REVIEW OF
GENETIC COUNSELING AS PROVIDED BY SECTION SEVEN  THOUSAND  FIFTY-TWO  OF
THIS  ARTICLE  AND  CASE  MANAGEMENT AS APPROPRIATE THAT INCLUDE REGULAR
CHART REVIEWS OF CLIENTS WITH THE LIMITED PERMITTEE AND THE SUPERVISOR.
  5. THE FEE FOR EACH LIMITED PERMIT AND FOR EACH RE-REGISTRATION  SHALL
BE TWO HUNDRED DOLLARS.
  S  7057.  VISITING  GENETIC COUNSELORS. VISITING CERTIFIED OR LICENSED
GENETIC COUNSELORS FROM OUTSIDE THE  STATE  PERFORMING  SERVICES  FOR  A
PERIOD  OF  LESS  THAN  FIFTEEN DAYS, ANNUALLY, SHALL BE EXEMPT FROM NEW
YORK STATE LICENSURE. VISITING GENETIC COUNSELORS MUST  BE  LICENSED  IN
THEIR  HOME  STATE  IF  LICENSURE  IS  AVAILABLE.  VISITING CERTIFIED OR
LICENSED GENETIC COUNSELORS, FROM OUTSIDE THE STATE, PERFORMING SERVICES
FOR A PERIOD OF FIFTEEN DAYS OR MORE, ANNUALLY, MUST APPLY FOR NEW  YORK
STATE  LICENSURE  WITHIN  SIXTY  DAYS  OF PROVIDING SERVICES IN NEW YORK
STATE. SUCH APPLICANTS MAY CONTINUE TO PROVIDE SERVICES UNTIL  NEW  YORK
STATE LICENSURE IS GRANTED OR DENIED.
  S  7058.  TELEHEALTH SERVICES. GENETIC COUNSELORS PROVIDING TELEHEALTH
SERVICES TO NEW YORK STATE RESIDENTS MUST HAVE OR  APPLY  FOR  NEW  YORK
STATE  LICENSURE.  AS  USED  IN THIS SECTION "TELEHEALTH SERVICES" SHALL
MEAN THE PROVISION OF GENETIC COUNSELING THROUGH THE USE OF SECURE TELE-
COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY.
  S 2. Severability. If any clause, sentence, paragraph, section or part
of this act shall be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction  to

S. 2904--A                          5                         A. 3350--A

be  invalid  and  after  exhaustion  of all further judicial review, the
judgment shall not affect, impair or invalidate the  remainder  thereof,
but  shall  be  confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, para-
graph,  section or part of this act directly involved in the controversy
in which the judgment shall have been rendered.
  S 3. This act shall take effect immediately; provided,  however,  that
within two years of the effective date of this act, the addition, amend-
ment and/or repeal of any rule or regulation necessary for the implemen-
tation  of this act on its effective date are authorized and directed to
be made and completed  on  or  before  such  effective  date;  provided,
further, that with respect to those persons who are licensed under arti-
cle  142  of  the  education law on or before the triennial registration
period next succeeding the effective date of this  act,  the  continuing
education requirements set forth in this act need not be completed until
after the second triennial registration period.

Comments

Open Legislation comments facilitate discussion of New York State legislation. All comments are subject to moderation. Comments deemed off-topic, commercial, campaign-related, self-promotional; or that contain profanity or hate speech; or that link to sites outside of the nysenate.gov domain are not permitted, and will not be published. Comment moderation is generally performed Monday through Friday.

By contributing or voting you agree to the Terms of Participation and verify you are over 13.