1. The Laws of New York
  2. Consolidated Laws
  3. Criminal Procedure
  4. Part 3: Special Proceedings and Miscellaneous Procedures
  5. Title P: Procedures For Securing Attendance At Criminal Actions and Proceedings of Defendants and Witnesses Under Control of Court--recognizance, Bail and Commitment
  6. Article 510: Recognizance, Bail and Commitment-- Determination of Application For Recognizance or Bail, Issuance of Securing Orders, and Related Matters


Section 510.40 Court notification to principal of conditions of release and of alleged violations of conditions of release

Criminal Procedure (CPL)

§ 510.40 Court notification to principal of conditions of release and of

   alleged violations of conditions of release.

  1. Upon ordering that a principal be released on the principal's own recognizance, or released under non-monetary conditions, or, if bail has been fixed, upon the posting of bail, the court must direct the principal to appear in the criminal action or proceeding involved whenever the principal's attendance may be required and to be at all times amenable to the orders and processes of the court. If such principal is in the custody of the sheriff or at liberty upon bail at the time of the order, the court must direct that the principal be discharged from such custody or, as the case may be, that the principal's bail be exonerated.

  2. Upon the issuance of an order fixing bail, where authorized, and upon the posting thereof, the court must examine the bail to determine whether it complies with the order. If it does, the court must, in the absence of some factor or circumstance which in law requires or authorizes disapproval thereof, approve the bail and must issue a certificate of release, authorizing the principal to be at liberty, and, if the principal is in the custody of the sheriff at the time, directing the sheriff to discharge the principal therefrom. If the bail fixed is not posted, or is not approved after being posted, the court must order that the principal be committed to the custody of the sheriff. In the event of any such non-approval, the court shall explain promptly in writing the reasons therefor.

  3. Non-monetary conditions of release shall be individualized and established in writing by the court. At future court appearances, the court shall consider a lessening of conditions or modification of conditions to a less burdensome form based on the principal's compliance with such conditions of release. In the event of alleged non-compliance with the conditions of release in an important respect, pursuant to this subdivision, additional conditions may be imposed by the court, on the record or in writing, only after notice of the facts and circumstances of such alleged non-compliance, reasonable under the circumstances, affording the principal and the principal's attorney and the people an opportunity to present relevant, admissible evidence, relevant witnesses and to cross-examine witnesses, and a finding by clear and convincing evidence that the principal violated a condition of release in an important respect. Following such a finding, in determining whether to impose additional conditions for non-compliance, the court shall consider and may select conditions consistent with the court's obligation to impose the least restrictive condition or conditions that will reasonably assure the defendant's return to court. The court shall explain on the record or in writing the reasons for its determination and for any changes to the conditions imposed.

  4. (a) Electronic monitoring of a principal's location may be ordered only if the court finds, after notice, an opportunity to be heard and an individualized determination explained on the record or in writing, that the defendant qualifies for electronic monitoring in accordance with subdivision twenty-one of section 500.10 of this title, and no other realistic non-monetary condition or set of non-monetary conditions will suffice to reasonably assure a principal's return to court.

  (b) The specific method of electronic monitoring of the principal's location must be approved by the court. It must be the least restrictive procedure and method that will reasonably assure the principal's return to court, and unobtrusive to the greatest extent practicable.

  (c) Electronic monitoring of the location of a principal may be conducted only by a public entity under the supervision and control of a county or municipality or a non-profit entity under contract to the county, municipality or the state. A county or municipality shall be authorized to enter into a contract with another county or municipality in the state to monitor principals under non-monetary conditions of release in its county, but counties, municipalities and the state shall not contract with any private for-profit entity for such purposes.

  (d) Electronic monitoring of a principal's location may be for a maximum period of sixty days, and may be renewed for such period, after notice, an opportunity to be heard and a de novo, individualized determination in accordance with this subdivision, which shall be explained on the record or in writing.

  A defendant subject to electronic location monitoring under this subdivision shall be considered held or confined in custody for purposes of section 180.80 of this chapter and shall be considered committed to the custody of the sheriff for purposes of section 170.70 of the chapter, as applicable.

  5. If a principal is released under non-monetary conditions, the court shall, on the record and in an individualized written document provided to the principal, notify the principal, in plain language and a manner sufficiently clear and specific:

  (a) of any conditions to which the principal is subject, to serve as a guide for the principal's conduct; and

  (b) that the possible consequences for violation of such a condition may include revocation of the securing order and the ordering of a more restrictive securing order.