1. The Laws of New York
  2. Consolidated Laws
  3. Civil Service
  4. Article 14: Public Employees' Fair Employment Act


Section 209 Resolution of disputes in the course of collective negotiations

Civil Service (CVS)

Resolution of disputes in the course of collective negotiations. 1. For purposes of this section, an impasse may be deemed to exist if the parties fail to achieve agreement at least one hundred twenty days prior to the end of the fiscal year of the public employer.

  * 2. Public employers are hereby empowered to enter into written agreements with recognized or certified employee organizations setting forth procedures to be invoked in the event of disputes which reach an impasse in the course of collective negotiations. Such agreements may include the undertaking by each party to submit unresolved issues to impartial arbitration. In the absence or upon the failure of such procedures, public employers and employee organizations may request the board to render assistance as provided in this section, or the board may render such assistance on its own motion, as provided in subdivision three of this section, or, in regard to officers or members of any organized fire department, or any unit of the public employer which previously was a part of an organized fire department whose primary mission includes the prevention and control of aircraft fires, police force or police department of any county, city, town, village or fire or police district, or detective-investigators, or rackets investigators employed in the office of a district attorney of a county, or in regard to any organized unit of troopers, commissioned or noncommissioned officers of the division of state police, or in regard to investigators, senior investigators and investigator specialists of the division of state police, or in regard to members of collective negotiating units designated as security services and security supervisors who are police officers, who are forest ranger captains or who are employed by the state department of corrections and community supervision and are designated as peace officers pursuant to subdivision twenty-five of section 2.10 of the criminal procedure law, or in regard to members of the collective negotiating unit designated as the agency law enforcement services unit who are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law or who are forest rangers, or in regard to organized units of deputy sheriffs who are engaged directly in criminal law enforcement activities that aggregate more than fifty per centum of their service as certified by the county sheriff and are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law as certified by the municipal police training council or Suffolk county correction officers or Suffolk county park police, as provided in subdivision four of this section.

  * NB Effective until July 1, 2024

  * 2. Public employers are hereby empowered to enter into written agreements with recognized or certified employee organizations setting forth procedures to be invoked in the event of disputes which reach an impasse in the course of collective negotiations. Such agreements may include the undertaking by each party to submit unresolved issues to impartial arbitration. In the absence or upon the failure of such procedures, public employers and employee organizations may request the board to render assistance as provided in this section, or the board may render such assistance on its own motion, as provided in subdivision three of this section, or, in regard to officers or members of any organized fire department, or any unit of the public employer which previously was a part of an organized fire department whose primary mission includes the prevention and control of aircraft fires, police force or police department of any county, city, except the city of New York, town, village or fire or police district, or in regard to organized units of deputy sheriffs who are engaged directly in criminal law enforcement activities that aggregate more than fifty per centum of their service as certified by the county sheriff and are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law as certified by the municipal police training council or Suffolk county correction officers or Suffolk county park police, as provided in subdivision four of this section.

  * NB Effective July 1, 2024

  3. On request of either party or upon its own motion, as provided in subdivision two of this section, and in the event the board determines that an impasse exists in collective negotiations between such employee organization and a public employer as to the conditions of employment of public employees, the board shall render assistance as follows:

  (a) to assist the parties to effect a voluntary resolution of the dispute, the board shall appoint a mediator or mediators representative of the public from a list of qualified persons maintained by the board;

  (b) if the impasse continues, the board shall appoint a fact-finding board of not more than three members, each representative of the public, from a list of qualified persons maintained by the board, which fact-finding board shall have, in addition to the powers delegated to it by the board, the power to make public recommendations for the resolution of the dispute;

  (c) if the dispute is not resolved at least eighty days prior to the end of the fiscal year of the public employer or by such other date determined by the board to be appropriate, the fact-finding board, acting by a majority of its members, (i) shall immediately transmit its findings of fact and recommendations for resolution of the dispute to the chief executive officer of the government involved and to the employee organization involved, (ii) may thereafter assist the parties to effect a voluntary resolution of the dispute, and (iii) shall within five days of such transmission make public such findings and recommendations;

  (d) in the event that the findings of fact and recommendations are made public by a fact-finding board appointed by the board or established pursuant to procedures agreed upon by the parties under subdivision two of this section, and the impasse continues, the public employment relations board shall have the power to take whatever steps it deems appropriate to resolve the dispute, including (i) the making of recommendations after giving due consideration to the findings of fact and recommendations of such fact-finding board, but no further fact-finding board shall be appointed and (ii) upon the request of the parties, assistance in providing for voluntary arbitration;

  (e) should either the public employer or the employee organization not accept in whole or in part the recommendations of the fact-finding board, (i) the chief executive officer of the government involved shall, within ten days after receipt of the findings of fact and recommendations of the fact-finding board, submit to the legislative body of the government involved a copy of the findings of fact and recommendations of the fact-finding board, together with his recommendations for settling the dispute; (ii) the employee organization may submit to such legislative body its recommendations for settling the dispute; (iii) the legislative body or a duly authorized committee thereof shall forthwith conduct a public hearing at which the parties shall be required to explain their positions with respect to the report of the fact-finding board; and (iv) thereafter, the legislative body shall take such action as it deems to be in the public interest, including the interest of the public employees involved.

  (f) where the public employer is a school district, a board of cooperative educational services, a community college, the state university of New York, or the city university of New York, the provisions of subparagraphs (iii) and (iv) of paragraph (e) of this subdivision shall not apply, and (i) the board may afford the parties an opportunity to explain their positions with respect to the report of the fact-finding board at a meeting at which the legislative body, or a duly authorized committee thereof, may be present; (ii) thereafter, the legislative body may take such action as is necessary and appropriate to reach an agreement. The board may provide such assistance as may be appropriate.

  * 4. On request of either party or upon its own motion, as provided in subdivision two of this section, and in the event the board determines that an impasse exists in collective negotiations between such employee organization and a public employer as to the conditions of employment of officers or members of any organized fire department, or any other unit of the public employer which previously was a part of an organized fire department whose primary mission includes the prevention and control of aircraft fires, police force or police department of any county, city, town, village or fire or police district, and detective-investigators, criminal investigators or rackets investigators employed in the office of a district attorney, or as to the conditions of employment of members of any organized unit of troopers, commissioned or noncommissioned officers of the division of state police or as to the conditions of employment of members of any organized unit of investigators, senior investigators and investigator specialists of the division of state police, or as to the terms and conditions of employment of members of collective negotiating units designated as security services and security supervisors, who are police officers, who are forest ranger captains or who are employed by the state department of corrections and community supervision and are designated as peace officers pursuant to subdivision twenty-five of section 2.10 of the criminal procedure law, or in regard to members of the collective negotiating unit designated as the agency law enforcement services unit who are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law or who are forest rangers, or as to the conditions of employment of any organized unit of deputy sheriffs who are engaged directly in criminal law enforcement activities that aggregate more than fifty per centum of their service as certified by the county sheriff and are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law as certified by the municipal police training council or Suffolk county correction officers or Suffolk county park police, the board shall render assistance as follows:

  (a) to assist the parties to effect a voluntary resolution of the dispute, the board shall appoint a mediator from a list of qualified persons maintained by the board;

  (b) if the mediator is unable to effect settlement of the controversy within fifteen days after his appointment, either party may petition the board to refer the dispute to a public arbitration panel;

  (c) (i) upon petition of either party, the board shall refer the dispute to a public arbitration panel as hereinafter provided;

  (ii) the public arbitration panel shall consist of one member appointed by the public employer, one member appointed by the employee organization and one public member appointed jointly by the public employer and employee organization who shall be selected within ten days after receipt by the board of a petition for creation of the arbitration panel. If either party fails to designate its member to the public arbitration panel, the board shall promptly, upon receipt of a request by either party, designate a member associated in interest with the public employer or employee organization he is to represent. Each of the respective parties is to bear the cost of its member appointed or designated to the arbitration panel and each of the respective parties is to share equally the cost of the public member. If, within seven days after the mailing date, the parties are unable to agree upon the one public member, the board shall submit to the parties a list of qualified, disinterested persons for the selection of the public member. Each party shall alternately strike from the list one of the names with the order of striking determined by lot, until the remaining one person shall be designated as public member. This process shall be completed within five days of receipt of this list. The parties shall notify the board of the designated public member. The public member shall be chosen as chairman;

  (iii) the public arbitration panel shall hold hearings on all matters related to the dispute. The parties may be heard either in person, by counsel, or by other representatives, as they may respectively designate. The panel may grant more than one adjournment each for each party; provided, however, that a second request of either party and any subsequent adjournments may be granted on request of either party, provided that the party which requests the adjournment shall pay the arbitrator's fee. The parties may present, either orally or in writing, or both, statements of fact, supporting witnesses and other evidence, and argument of their respective positions with respect to each case. The panel shall have authority to require the production of such additional evidence, either oral or written as it may desire from the parties and shall provide at the request of either party that a full and complete record be kept of any such hearings, the cost of such record to be shared equally by the parties;

  (iv) all matters presented to the public arbitration panel for its determination shall be decided by a majority vote of the members of the panel. The panel, prior to a vote on any issue in dispute before it, shall, upon the joint request of its two members representing the public employer and the employee organization respectively, refer the issues back to the parties for further negotiations;

  (v) the public arbitration panel shall make a just and reasonable determination of the matters in dispute. In arriving at such determination, the panel shall specify the basis for its findings, taking into consideration, in addition to any other relevant factors, the following:

  a. comparison of the wages, hours and conditions of employment of the employees involved in the arbitration proceeding with the wages, hours, and conditions of employment of other employees performing similar services or requiring similar skills under similar working conditions and with other employees generally in public and private employment in comparable communities.

  b. the interests and welfare of the public and the financial ability of the public employer to pay;

  c. comparison of peculiarities in regard to other trades or professions, including specifically, (1) hazards of employment; (2) physical qualifications; (3) educational qualifications; (4) mental qualifications; (5) job training and skills;

  d. the terms of collective agreements negotiated between the parties in the past providing for compensation and fringe benefits, including, but not limited to, the provisions for salary, insurance and retirement benefits, medical and hospitalization benefits, paid time off and job security.

  (vi) the determination of the public arbitration panel shall be final and binding upon the parties for the period prescribed by the panel, but in no event shall such period exceed two years from the termination date of any previous collective bargaining agreement or if there is no previous collective bargaining agreement then for a period not to exceed two years from the date of determination by the panel. Such determination shall not be subject to the approval of any local legislative body or other municipal authority. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subparagraph to the contrary, where the parties to a public arbitration are those anticipated by the provisions of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this subdivision the state and such parties may agree to confer authority to the public arbitration panel to issue a final and binding determination for a period up to and including four years.

  (vii) the determination of the public arbitration panel shall be subject to review by a court of competent jurisdiction in the manner prescribed by law.

  (d) The provisions of this subdivision shall expire July first, two thousand twenty-four.

  (e) With regard to members of any organized unit of troopers, investigators, senior investigators, investigator specialists and commissioned or non-commissioned officers of the division of state police, the provisions of this section shall not apply to issues relating to disciplinary procedures and investigations or eligibility and assignment to details and positions, which shall be governed by other provisions prescribed by law.

  (f) With regard to any members of collective negotiating units designated as security services or security supervisors, who are police officers, who are forest ranger captains or who are employed by the state department of corrections and community supervision and are designated as peace officers pursuant to subdivision twenty-five of section 2.10 of the criminal procedure law, or in regard to members of the collective negotiating unit designated as the agency law enforcement services unit who are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law or who are forest rangers, or in regard to detective-investigators, criminal investigators or rackets investigators employed in the office of a district attorney of a county contained within a city with a population of one million or more, the provisions of this section shall only apply to the terms of collective bargaining agreements directly relating to compensation, including, but not limited to, salary, stipends, location pay, insurance, medical and hospitalization benefits; and shall not apply to non-compensatory issues including, but not limited to, job security, disciplinary procedures and actions, deployment or scheduling, or issues relating to eligibility for overtime compensation which shall be governed by other provisions proscribed by law.

  (g) With regard to members of any organized unit of deputy sheriffs who are engaged directly in criminal law enforcement activities that aggregate more than fifty per centum of their service as certified by the county sheriff and are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law as certified by the municipal police training council, the provisions of this section shall only apply to the terms of collective bargaining agreements directly relating to compensation, including, but not limited to, salary, stipends, location pay, insurance, medical and hospitalization benefits; and shall not apply to non-compensatory issues including, but not limited to, job security, disciplinary procedures and actions, deployment or scheduling, or issues relating to eligibility for overtime compensation which shall be governed by other provisions proscribed by law. Provided, further, that with regard to any organized unit of deputy sheriffs who are engaged directly in criminal law enforcement activities that aggregate more than fifty per centum of their service and are police officers pursuant to subdivision thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law as certified by the municipal police training council, the provisions of this subdivision pertaining to interest arbitration shall only apply in the event that the collective bargaining agreement between the public employer and the public employee organization has been expired for a period of not less than twelve months and the parties have fully utilized all other impasse resolution procedures available under this subdivision.

  (h) With regard to Suffolk county correction officers the provisions of this section shall not apply to issues relating to disciplinary procedures and investigations or eligibility and assignment to details and positions, which shall be governed by other provisions prescribed by law.

  (i) With regard to Suffolk county park police officers the provisions of this section shall not apply to issues relating to disciplinary procedures and investigations or eligibility and assignment to details and positions, which shall be governed by other provisions prescribed by law.

  * NB Expires July 1, 2024

  4-a. (a) Notwithstanding anything in subdivision four of this section to the contrary, a public employer that is a fiscally eligible municipality, as defined in section 160.05 of the local finance law, and is otherwise subject to subdivision four of this section, upon resolution of its governing body with the concurrence of its chief executive officer, and a public employee organization subject to subdivision four of this section may, jointly, stipulate and agree that an impasse exists, at any time, with respect to collective negotiations between the parties for a collective bargaining agreement and, in lieu of commencing a proceeding under subdivision four of this section, may jointly request that the financial restructuring board for local governments, established in section 160.05 of the local finance law, resolve such impasse. A joint request pursuant to this subdivision shall be irrevocable.

  (b) The financial restructuring board for local governments shall render a just and reasonable determination of the matters in dispute by an affirmative vote of a majority of the total number of its members. In arriving at such determination, it shall specify the basis for its findings, taking into consideration, in addition to any other relevant factors, those factors set forth in subdivision six of this section. In all matters regarding public disclosure of its proceedings and findings, it shall be treated the same as the panel convened pursuant to subdivision four of this section. It shall render a determination within six months of being formally requested by the parties to convene.

  (c) Each party before the financial restructuring board for local governments may be heard either in person, by counsel, or by other representatives, as they may respectively designate and may present, either orally or in writing, or both, statements of fact, supporting witnesses and other evidence, and argument of their respective positions with respect to each case. The board shall have authority to require the production of additional evidence, either oral or written, as it may desire from the parties. All proceedings, meetings and hearings conducted by the board shall be held in the city of Albany.

  (d) The determination of the financial restructuring board for local governments with respect to the conditions of employment presented to it pursuant to this section shall be final and binding upon the parties for the period prescribed by such board, but in no event shall such period exceed four years from the termination date of any previous collective bargaining agreement or if there is no previous collective bargaining agreement then for a period not to exceed four years from the date of determination by the board. Such determination shall not be subject to the approval of any local legislative body or other municipal authority, and shall only be subject to review by a court of competent jurisdiction in the manner prescribed by law.

  * 5. (a) In the event that the board certifies that a voluntary resolution of the contract negotiations between either (i) the New York city transit authority (hereinafter referred to as TA-public employer) and the public employee organization certified or recognized to represent the majority of employees of such TA-public employer, or (ii) the metropolitan transportation authority, including its subsidiaries, the New York city transit authority, including its subsidiary, and the Triborough bridge and tunnel authority (all hereinafter referred to as MTA-public employer) and a public employee organization certified or recognized to represent employees of such MTA-public employer not subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Railway Labor Act and not subject to the provisions of subparagraph (i) hereof, which has made an election pursuant to paragraph (f) of this subdivision, cannot be effected, or upon the joint request of the TA-public employer or the MTA-public employer (hereinafter jointly referred to as public employer) and any such affected employee organization, such board shall refer the dispute to a public arbitration panel, consisting of one member appointed by the public employer, one member appointed by the employee organization and one public member appointed jointly by the public employer and employee organization who shall be selected within ten days after receipt by the board of a petition for creation of the arbitration panel. If either party fails to designate its member to the public arbitration panel, the board shall promptly, upon receipt of a request by either party, designate a member associated in interest with the public employer or employee organization he is to represent. Each of the respective parties is to bear the cost of its member appointed or designated to the arbitration panel and each of the respective parties is to share equally the cost of the public member. If, within seven days after the mailing date, the parties are unable to agree upon the one public member, the board shall submit to the parties a list of qualified, disinterested persons for the selection of the public member. Each party shall alternately strike from the list one of the names with the order of striking determined by lot, until the remaining one person shall be designated as public member. This process shall be completed within five days of receipt of this list. The parties shall notify the board of the designated public member. The public member shall be chosen as chairman.

  (b) The arbitration panel shall hold hearings on all matters within the scope of negotiations related to the dispute for which the panel was appointed. The parties may be heard either in person, by counsel or by other representatives as they may respectively designate. The parties may present, either orally or in writing or both, statement of fact, supporting witnesses and other evidence and argument of their respective position with respect to each case. The panel shall have authority to require the production of such additional evidence, either oral or written, as it may desire from the parties and shall provide at the request of either party that a full and complete record be kept of any such hearings, the cost of such record to be shared equally by the parties.

  (c) All matters presented to such panel for its determination shall be decided by a majority vote of the members of the panel. The panel, prior to a vote on any issue in dispute before it, may refer the issue back to the parties for further negotiations.

  (d) Such panel shall make a just and reasonable determination of matters in dispute. In arriving at such determination, the panel shall specify the basis for its findings, taking into consideration, in addition to any other relevant factors, the following:

  (i) comparison of the wages, hours, fringe benefits, conditions and characteristics of employment of the public employees involved in the impasse proceeding with the wages, hours, fringe benefits, conditions and characteristics of employment of other employees performing similar work and other employees generally in public or private employment in New York city or comparable communities;

  (ii) the overall compensation paid to the employees involved in the impasse proceeding, including direct wage compensation, overtime and premium pay, vacations, holidays and other excused time, insurance, pensions, medical and hospitalization benefits, food and apparel furnished, and all other benefits received;

  (iii) the impact of the panel's award on the financial ability of the public employer to pay, on the present fares and on the continued provision of services to the public;

  (iv) changes in the average consumer prices for goods and services, commonly known as the cost of living;

  (v) the interest and welfare of the public; and

  (vi) such other factors as are normally and customarily considered in the determination of wages, hours, fringe benefits and other working conditions in collective negotiations or impasse panel proceedings.

  (e) The panel shall have full authority to resolve the matters in dispute before it and issue a determination which shall be final and binding upon the parties, notwithstanding any other provision of this article. Except for the purposes of judicial review, any provision of a determination of the arbitration panel, the implementation of which requires an enactment of law, shall not become binding until the appropriate legislative body enacts such law.

  (f) (i) Within sixty days of the enactment of this provision, and only within such time period, any such public employee organization described in subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of this subdivision may elect to be covered by the provisions of this section by filing in writing a no- tice of participation with the chairman of the board and the chairman of the metropolitan transportation authority.

  (ii) Within sixty days of the enactment of this subparagraph and only within such time period, any such public employee organization certified or recognized to represent employees of an MTA-public employer (described in subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of this subdivision) not subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal Railway Labor Act but which was subject to such jurisdiction during the sixty-day period set forth in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph may elect to be covered by the provisions of this section by filing in writing a notice of participation with the chairman of the board and the chairman of the metropolitan transportation authority.

  (iii) Once such an election is made pursuant to subparagraph (i) or (ii) of this paragraph, any such public employee organization shall thereafter be subject to the provisions of this section unless such organization and the chairman of the metropolitan transportation authority file a joint agreement in writing with the chairman of the board that provides for a rescission of the election made pursuant to this paragraph.

  (g) This subdivision shall not apply to a certified or recognized public employee organization which represents any public employees described in subdivision sixteen of section twelve hundred four of the public authorities law and nothing contained within this section shall be construed to divest the public employment relations board or any court of competent jurisdiction of the full power or authority to enforce any order made by the board or such court prior to the effective date of this subdivision.

  * NB Expires July 1, 2021

  * 6. (a) For disputes concerning an impasse pursuant to subdivision four of this section that involve a county, city, town, or village subject to section three-c of the general municipal law, a public arbitration panel shall make a determination as to whether such county, city, town, or village, is a public employer that is a fiscally eligible municipality as part of its analysis of the financial ability of the public employer to pay.

  (b) In evaluating whether a public employer covered by this subdivision is a fiscally eligible municipality, such public arbitration panel shall consider the average full value property tax rate of such public employer and the average fund balance percentage of such public employer.

  (i) For purposes of this subdivision, "full value property tax rate" shall mean the amount to be raised by tax on real estate by a local government in a given fiscal year divided by the full valuation of taxable real estate for that same fiscal year as reported to the office of the state comptroller.

  (ii) For purposes of this subdivision, "average full value property tax rate" shall mean the sum of the full value property tax rates for the five most recent fiscal years divided by five.

  (iii) For purposes of this subdivision, "fund balance percentage" shall mean the total fund balance in the general fund of a local government in a given fiscal year divided by the total expenditures from the general fund for that same fiscal year as reported to the office of the state comptroller.

  (iv) For purposes of this subdivision, "average fund balance percentage" shall mean the sum of the fund balance percentages for the five most recently completed fiscal years divided by five.

  (c) If the average full value property tax rate of such public employer is greater than the average full value property tax rate of seventy-five percent of counties, cities, towns, and villages, with local fiscal years ending in the same calendar year as of the most recently available information, the public arbitration panel must find that such public employer is a fiscally eligible municipality. The office of the state comptroller shall make publicly available the list of counties, cities, towns, and villages that have an average full value property tax rate that meets such criteria in each local fiscal year. If a public employer has not reported to the office of the state comptroller the information necessary to calculate its average full value property tax rate, such public employer may not be deemed a fiscally eligible municipality and the provisions of this subdivision shall not apply.

  (d) If the average fund balance percentage of such public employer is less than five percent and the state comptroller has certified that any additional fund balances in funds other than the general fund available for payment of arbitration awards in each year, if added to the fund balance of the general fund, would not cause the average fund balance percentage of such public employer to exceed five percent, the public arbitration panel must find that such public employer is a fiscally eligible municipality. The office of the state comptroller shall make publicly available the list of counties, cities, towns, and villages that have an average fund balance percentage that is less than five percent in each local fiscal year. If a public employer has not reported to the office of the state comptroller the information necessary to calculate its average fund balance percentage, such public employer may not be deemed a fiscally eligible municipality and the provisions of this subdivision shall not apply.

  (e) When such public employer has been found to be a fiscally eligible municipality, the public arbitration panel shall, first and foremost, consider ability to pay by assigning a weight of seventy percent to that portion of the criterion contained within clause b of subparagraph (v) of paragraph (c) of subdivision four of this section that pertains only to the public employer's ability to pay. All other criteria contained in subparagraph (v) of paragraph (c) of subdivision four of this section, including that portion of clause b of subparagraph (v) of paragraph (c) of subdivision four of this section that pertains to the interest and welfare of the public, shall constitute an aggregate weight of thirty percent. Additionally, with respect to the total monetary value of any determination, the panel must recognize and take into account in its determination the constraints, obligations and requirements imposed by the real property tax cap pursuant to section three-c of the general municipal law upon the public employer involved in the dispute before the panel.

  (f) The provisions of this subdivision shall expire July first, two thousand twenty-four.

  * NB Expires July 1, 2024