1. The Laws of New York
  2. Consolidated Laws
  3. Civil Service
  4. Article 14: Public Employees' Fair Employment Act


Section 209-A Improper employer practices; improper employee organization practices; application

Civil Service (CVS)

Improper employer practices; improper employee organization practices; application. 1. Improper employer practices. It shall be an improper practice for a public employer or its agents deliberately (a) to interfere with, restrain or coerce public employees in the exercise of their rights guaranteed in section two hundred two of this article for the purpose of depriving them of such rights; (b) to dominate or interfere with the formation or administration of any employee organization for the purpose of depriving them of such rights; (c) to discriminate against any employee for the purpose of encouraging or discouraging membership in, or participation in the activities of, any employee organization; (d) to refuse to negotiate in good faith with the duly recognized or certified representatives of its public employees; (e) to refuse to continue all the terms of an expired agreement until a new agreement is negotiated, unless the employee organization which is a party to such agreement has, during such negotiations or prior to such resolution of such negotiations, engaged in conduct violative of subdivision one of section two hundred ten of this article; (f) to utilize any state funds appropriated for any purpose to train managers, supervisors or other administrative personnel regarding methods to discourage union organization or to discourage an employee from participating in a union organizing drive; (g) to fail to permit or refuse to afford a public employee the right, upon the employee's demand, to representation by a representative of the employee organization, or the designee of such organization, which has been certified or recognized under this article when at the time of questioning by the employer of such employee it reasonably appears that he or she may be the subject of a potential disciplinary action. If representation is requested, and the employee is a potential target of disciplinary action at the time of questioning, a reasonable period of time shall be afforded to the employee to obtain such representation. It shall be an affirmative defense to any improper practice charge under paragraph (g) of this subdivision that the employee has the right, pursuant to statute, interest arbitration award, collectively negotiated agreement, policy or practice, to present to a hearing officer or arbitrator evidence of the employer's failure to provide representation and to obtain exclusion of the resulting evidence upon demonstration of such failure. Nothing in this section shall grant an employee any right to representation by the representative of an employee organization in any criminal investigation; or (h) to disclose home addresses, personal telephone numbers, personal cell phone numbers, personal e-mail addresses of a public employee, as the term "public employee" is defined in subdivision seven of section two hundred one of this article, except (i) where required pursuant to the provisions of this article, and (ii) to the extent compelled to do so by lawful service of process, subpoena, court order, or as otherwise required by law. This paragraph shall not prohibit other provisions of law regarding work-related, publicly available information such as title, salary, and dates of employment.

  2. Improper employee organization practices. It shall be an improper practice for an employee organization or its agents deliberately (a) to interfere with, restrain or coerce public employees in the exercise of the rights granted in section two hundred two, or to cause, or attempt to cause, a public employer to do so provided, however, that an employee organization does not interfere with, restrain or coerce public employees when it limits its services to and representation of non-members in accordance with this subdivision; (b) to refuse to negotiate collectively in good faith with a public employer, provided it is the duly recognized or certified representative of the employees of such employer; or (c) to breach its duty of fair representation to public employees under this article. Notwithstanding any law, rule or regulation to the contrary, an employee organization's duty of fair representation to a public employee it represents but who is not a member of the employee organization shall be limited to the negotiation or enforcement of the terms of an agreement with the public employer. No provision of this article shall be construed to require an employee organization to provide representation to a non-member (i) during questioning by the employer, (ii) in statutory or administrative proceedings or to enforce statutory or regulatory rights, or (iii) in any stage of a grievance, arbitration or other contractual process concerning the evaluation or discipline of a public employee where the non-member is permitted to proceed without the employee organization and be represented by his or her own advocate. Nor shall any provision of this article prohibit an employee organization from providing legal, economic or job-related services or benefits beyond those provided in the agreement with a public employer only to its members.

  3. The public employer shall be made a party to any charge filed under subdivision two of this section which alleges that the duly recognized or certified employee organization breached its duty of fair representation in the processing of or failure to process a claim that the public employer has breached its agreement with such employee organization.

  * 4. Injunctive relief. (a) A party filing an improper practice charge under this section may petition the board to obtain injunctive relief, pending a decision on the merits of said charge by an administrative law judge, upon a showing that: (i) there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred, and (ii) where it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating the maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief.

  (b) Within ten days of the receipt by the board of such petition, if the board determines that a charging party has made a sufficient showing both that there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred and it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief, the board shall petition the supreme court, in Albany county, upon notice to all parties for the necessary injunctive relief or in the alternative may issue an order permitting the charging party to seek injunctive relief by petition to the supreme court, in which case the board must be joined as a necessary party. The board or, where applicable, the charging party, shall not be required to give any undertakings or bond and shall not be liable for any damages or costs which may have been sustained by reason of any injunctive relief ordered. If the board fails to act within ten days as provided herein, the board, for purposes of review, shall be deemed to have made a final order determining not to seek injunctive relief.

  (c) If after review, the board determines that a charging party has not made a sufficient showing and that no petition to the court is appropriate under paragraph (b) of this subdivision, such determination shall be deemed a final order and may be immediately reviewed pursuant to and upon the standards provided by article seventy-eight of the civil practice law and rules upon petition by the charging party in supreme court, Albany county.

  (d) Injunctive relief may be granted by the court, after hearing all parties, if it determines that there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred and that it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief. Such relief shall expire on decision by an administrative law judge finding no improper practice to have occurred, successful appeal or motion by respondent to vacate or modify pursuant to the provisions of the civil practice law and rules, or subsequent finding by the board that no improper practice had occurred. The administrative law judge shall conclude the hearing process and issue a decision on the merits within sixty days after the imposition of such injunctive relief unless mutually agreed by the respondent and charging party.

  (e) A decision on the merits of the improper practice charge by an administrative law judge finding an improper practice to have occurred shall continue the injunctive relief until either: (i) the respondent fails to file exceptions to the decision and implements the remedy, or (ii) the respondent successfully moves in court, upon notice, to vacate or modify the injunctive relief pursuant to provisions of the civil practice law and rules.

  (f) Any injunctive relief in effect pending a decision by the board on exceptions: (i) shall expire upon a decision by the board finding no improper practice to have occurred, of which the board shall notify the court immediately, or (ii) shall remain in effect only to the extent it implements any remedial order issued by the board in its decision, of which the board shall notify the court immediately.

  (g) All matters in which the court has granted injunctive relief pursuant to this subdivision shall be given preference in the scheduling, hearing and disposition over all other matters before the board or its administrative law judges.

  (h) The appeal of any order granting, denying, modifying or vacating injunctive relief ordered by the court pursuant to this subdivision shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article fifty-five of the civil practice law and rules except that where such injunctive relief is stayed pursuant to section fifty-five hundred nineteen of the civil practice law and rules, an appeal for removal of such stay may be given preference in the same manner as provided in rule fifty-five hundred twenty-one of the civil practice law and rules.

  (i) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to eliminate or diminish any right that may exist pursuant to any other law.

  (j) Pursuant to paragraph (d) of subdivision five of section two hundred five of this article, the board shall make such rules and regulations as may be appropriate to effectuate the purposes and provisions of this subdivision.

  * NB Repealed June 30, 2019

  * 5. Injunctive relief before the New York city board of collective bargaining. (a) A party filing an improper practice charge under section 12-306 of the administrative code of the city of New York may petition the board of collective bargaining to obtain injunctive relief before the supreme court, New York county, pending a decision on the merits by the board of collective bargaining, upon a showing that: (i) there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred, and (ii) where it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result and thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating the maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief.

  (b) Within ten days of the receipt by the board of such petition, if the board of collective bargaining determines that a charging party has made a sufficient showing both that there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred and it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief, said board shall petition the supreme court in New York county, upon notice to all parties, for the necessary injunctive relief, or in the alternative said board may issue an order permitting the charging party to seek injunctive relief by petition to the supreme court, New York county, in which case said board must be joined as a necessary party. Such application shall be in conformance with the civil practice law and rules except that said board, or where applicable, the charging party shall not be required to give any undertaking or land and shall not be liable for any damages or costs which may have been sustained by reason of any injunctive relief order. If the board of collective bargaining fails to act within ten days as provided in this paragraph, the board of collective bargaining, for purposes of review, shall be deemed to have made a final order determining not to permit the charging party to seek injunctive relief.

  (c) If after review, the board of collective bargaining determines that a charging party has not made a sufficient showing and that no petition to the court is appropriate under paragraph (b) of this subdivision, such determination shall be deemed a final order and may be immediately reviewed pursuant to article seventy-eight of the civil practice law and rules upon petition by the charging party to the supreme court, New York county.

  (d) Injunctive relief may be granted by the court, after hearing all parties, if it determines that there is reasonable cause to believe an improper practice has occurred and that it appears that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result thereby rendering a resulting judgment on the merits ineffectual necessitating maintenance of, or return to, the status quo to provide meaningful relief. Any injunctive relief granted by the court shall expire upon decision of the board of collective bargaining finding no improper practice to have occurred or successful challenge of the said board's decision pursuant to article seventy-eight of the civil practice law and rules. The said board shall conclude the hearing process and issue a decision on the merits within sixty days after the imposition of such injunctive relief unless mutually agreed by the respondent and charging party.

  (e) A decision on the merits of the improper practice charge by the board of collective bargaining finding an improper practice to have occurred shall continue the injunctive relief until either: (i) the respondent fails to appeal the decision and implements the remedy, or (ii) the respondent successfully moves in court, upon notice, to vacate or modify the injunctive relief pursuant to provisions of the civil practice law and rules.

  (f) Any injunctive relief in effect pending a decision by the board of collective bargaining on appeal: (i) shall expire upon a decision by the said board finding no improper practice to have occurred, of which the said board shall notify the court immediately, or (ii) shall remain in effect only to the extent it implements any remedial order issued by the said board of its decision, of which the said board shall notify the court immediately.

  (g) All matters in which the court has granted injunctive relief upon petition by the charging party pursuant to this subdivision shall be given preference in the scheduling, hearing and disposition over all other matters before the said board. The said board shall establish rules and regulations dealing with the implementation of this section including time limits for its own actions.

  (h) The appeal of any order granting, denying, modifying or vacating injunctive relief ordered by the court pursuant to this subdivision shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article fifty-five of the civil practice law and rules except that where such injunctive relief is stayed pursuant to section fifty-five hundred nineteen of the civil practice law and rules, an appeal for removal of such stay may be given preference in the same manner as provided in rule fifty-five hundred twenty-one of the civil practice law and rules.

  (i) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to eliminate or diminish any right that may exist pursuant to any other law.

  (j) The board of collective bargaining shall make such rules and regulations as may be appropriate to effectuate the purposes and provisions of this subdivision.

  * NB Repealed June 30, 2019

  6. Application. In applying this section, fundamental distinctions between private and public employment shall be recognized, and no body of federal or state law applicable wholly or in part to private employment, shall be regarded as binding or controlling precedent.