1. The Laws of New York
  2. Consolidated Laws
  3. Tax
  4. Article 22: Personal Income Tax
  5. Part 2: Residents


Section 612 New York adjusted gross income of a resident individual

Tax (TAX)

(a) General. The New York adjusted gross income of a resident individual means his federal adjusted gross income as defined in the laws of the United States for the taxable year, with the modifications specified in this section.

  (b) Modifications increasing federal adjusted gross income. There shall be added to federal adjusted gross income:

  (1) Interest income on obligations of any state other than this state, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which this state is a party, to the extent not properly includible in federal adjusted gross income;

  (2) Interest or dividend income on obligations or securities of any authority, commission, or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes;

  (3) Income taxes. (A) General. Income taxes imposed by this state or any other taxing jurisdiction, to the extent deductible in determining federal adjusted gross income and not credited against federal income tax.

  (B) Shareholders of S corporations. In the case of a shareholder of an S corporation, with respect to taxes imposed upon or payable by the corporation, the term "income taxes" in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall also include the taxes imposed under article nine-A of this chapter, regardless of the measure of such tax, but shall not otherwise include taxes imposed by this or any other state of the United States, or any political subdivision of this or any other state, or the District of Columbia.

  (4) Interest on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry obligations or securities the interest on which is exempt from tax under this article, to the extent deductible in determining federal adjusted gross income.

  (5) Expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year for (i) the production or collection of income which is exempt from tax under this article, or (ii) the management, conservation or maintenance of property held for the production of such income, and the amortizable bond premium for the taxable year on any bond the interest on which is exempt from tax under this article, to the extent that such expenses and premiums are deductible in determining federal adjusted gross income.

  (6) In the case of a taxpayer who has exercised the election permitted by subsection (g) or (h) of this section, the amount or amounts required by said subsections to be added to federal adjusted gross income.

  (7) In the case of a taxpayer who is a shareholder of a corporation organized under article fifteen or authorized to do business in this state under article fifteen-a of the business corporation law, for the taxpayer's taxable years beginning before nineteen hundred eighty-eight, the amount which is deductible by such corporation under paragraph one, two or three of subsection (a) of section four hundred four of the internal revenue code for its taxable year ending in or with such taxpayer's taxable year for contributions paid on behalf of such taxpayer minus the lesser of fifteen thousand dollars or fifteen percent of the earned income derived by such taxpayer from such corporation during such taxpayer's taxable year. In the case of a taxpayer on whose behalf contributions are paid under more than one plan to which this paragraph applies or under a plan, contributions to which on his behalf are subject to the limitations provided in section four hundred four (e) of the internal revenue code, this paragraph shall apply with respect to the aggregate of the contributions paid on his behalf under all such plans.

  (8) for taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, two thousand two, in the case of qualified property described in paragraph two of subsection k of section 168 of the internal revenue code, other than qualified resurgence zone property described in subsection (m) of this section, and other than qualified New York Liberty Zone property described in paragraph two of subsection b of section 1400L of the internal revenue code (without regard to clause (i) of subparagraph (C) of such paragraph), which was placed in service on or after June first, two thousand three, the amount allowable as a deduction under section 167 of the internal revenue code.

  (10) The amount required to be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (i) of this section.

  (15) In those instances where a credit for the special additional mortgage recording tax is allowed under paragraph one of subsection (f) or paragraph one of subsection (i) of section six hundred six of this article, the amount allowed as an exclusion or deduction for the special additional mortgage recording taxes imposed by subdivision one-a of section two hundred fifty-three of this chapter in determining federal adjusted gross income.

  (16) Unless the credit allowed pursuant to subsection (f) of section six hundred six of this article is reflected in the computation of the gain or loss so as to result in an increase in such gain or decrease in such loss, for federal income tax purposes, from the sale or other disposition of the property with respect to which the special additional mortgage recording tax imposed pursuant to subdivision one-a of section two hundred fifty-three of this chapter was paid, the amount of the special additional mortgage recording tax imposed by subdivision one-a of section two hundred fifty-three of this chapter which was paid and which is reflected in the computation of the basis of the property so as to result in a decrease in such gain or increase in such loss for federal income tax purposes from the sale or other disposition of the property with respect to which such tax was paid.

  (17) The amount required to be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (r) of this section.

  (18) In the case of a shareholder of an S corporation

  (A) where the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty is in effect with respect to such corporation, an amount equal to his pro rata share of the corporation's reductions for taxes described in paragraphs two and three of subsection (f) of section thirteen hundred sixty-six of the internal revenue code, and

  (B) in the case of a New York S termination year, subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall apply to the amount of reductions for taxes determined under subsection (s) of this section.

  (19) In the case of a shareholder of an S corporation

  (A) where the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty has not been made with respect to such corporation, any item of loss or deduction of the corporation included in federal gross income pursuant to section thirteen hundred sixty-six of the internal revenue code, and

  (B) in the case of a New York S termination year, subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall apply to the amounts of loss or deduction determined under subsection (s) of this section.

  (20) S corporation distributions to the extent not included in federal gross income for the taxable year because of the application of section thirteen hundred sixty-eight, subsection (e) of section thirteen hundred seventy-one or subsection (c) of section thirteen hundred seventy-nine of the internal revenue code which represent income not previously subject to tax under this article because the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty had not been made. Any such distribution treated in the manner described in paragraph two of subsection (b) of section thirteen hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code for federal income tax purposes shall be treated as ordinary income for purposes of this article.

  (21) In relation to the disposition of stock or indebtedness of a corporation which elected under subchapter s of chapter one of the internal revenue code for any taxable year of such corporation beginning, in the case of a corporation taxable under article nine-A of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty, the amount required to be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (n) of this section.

  (22) The amounts required to be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (q) of this section.

  (23) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property which is a qualified mass commuting vehicle described in subparagraph (D) of paragraph eight of subsection (f) of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code (relating to qualified mass commuting vehicles), any amount which the taxpayer claimed as a deduction in computing its federal adjusted gross income solely as a result of an election made pursuant to the provisions of such paragraph eight as it was in effect for agreements entered into prior to January first, nineteen hundred eighty-four.

  (24) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property which is a qualified mass commuting vehicle described in subparagraph (D) of paragraph eight of subsection (f) of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code (relating to qualified mass commuting vehicles), any amount which the taxpayer would have been required to include in the computation of its federal adjusted gross income had it not made the election permitted pursuant to such paragraph eight as it was in effect for agreements entered into prior to January first, nineteen hundred eighty-four.

  (25) In the case of property placed in service in taxable years beginning before nineteen hundred ninety-four, for taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property subject to the provisions of section two hundred eighty-F of the internal revenue code and property subject to the provisions of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code which is placed in service in this state in taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-four, the amount allowable as a deduction determined under section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code.

  * (26) The amount of member or employee contributions to a retirement system or pension fund picked up or paid by the employer pursuant to subdivision f of section five hundred seventeen or subdivision d of section six hundred thirteen of the retirement and social security law or section 13-225.1, 13-327.1, 13-125.1, 13-125.2 or 13-521.1 of the administrative code of the city of New York or subdivision nineteen of section twenty-five hundred seventy-five of the education law.

  * NB Effective until ch 525/2011 § 3 takes effect

  * (26) The amount of member or employee contributions to a retirement system or pension fund picked up or paid by the employer pursuant to subdivision f of section five hundred seventeen, subdivision d of section six hundred thirteen or section twelve hundred four-a of the retirement and social security law or section 13-225.1, 13-327.1, 13-125.1, 13-125.2 or 13-521.1 of the administrative code of the city of New York or subdivision nineteen of section twenty-five hundred seventy-five of the education law.

  * NB See ch 525/2011 § 7 for effectiveness

  * (26) The amount of member or employee contributions to a retirement system or pension fund picked up or paid by the employer pursuant to subdivision f of section five hundred seventeen or subdivision d of section six hundred thirteen of the retirement and social security law or section 13-225.1, 13-327.1 or 13-125.1 of the administrative code of the city of New York.

  * NB Effective upon the expiration of ch 525/2011 § 3

  (26-a) The amount of member or employee contributions to a retirement system or pension fund picked up or paid by the employer for members of the Manhattan and Bronx surface transportation authority pension plan and treated as employer contributions in determining income tax treatment under section 414(h) of the Internal Revenue Code.

  (27) Upon the disposition of property to which paragraph twenty-six of subsection (c) of this section applies, the amount, if any, by which the aggregate of the modifications described in such paragraph twenty-six attributable to such property exceeds the aggregate of the modifications described in paragraph twenty-five of this subsection attributable to such property.

  (29) When gain from the sale or other disposition of property is included in federal gross income, the amount of reduction in the basis of such property attributable to credit for solar and wind energy systems pursuant to paragraph nine of subsection (g) of section six hundred six; but for taxable years beginning before nineteen hundred eighty-seven, if such gain affects the determination of a net capital gain for federal income tax purposes, forty percent of such amount.

  (31) The amount deducted or deferred from an employee's salary under a flexible benefits program established pursuant to section twenty-three of the general municipal law or section one thousand two hundred ten-a of the public authorities law.

  (32) The amount by which an employee's salary is reduced pursuant to the provisions of subdivision b of section 12-126.1 and subdivision b of section 12-126.2 of the administrative code of the city of New York.

  (33) Real property taxes paid on qualified agricultural property and deducted in determining federal adjusted gross income, to the extent of the amount of the agricultural property tax credit allowed under subsection (n) or (i) of section six hundred six of this article.

  (34) (A) Excess distributions received during the taxable year by a distributee of a family tuition account established under the New York state college choice tuition savings program provided for under article fourteen-A of the education law, to the extent such excess distributions are deemed attributable to deductible contributions under paragraph thirty-two of subsection (c) of this section.

  (B) (i) The term "excess distributions" means distributions which are not

  (I) qualified withdrawals within the meaning of subdivision nine of section six hundred ninety-five-b of the education law;

  (II) withdrawals made as a result of the death or disability of the designated beneficiary within the meaning of subdivision ten of section six hundred ninety-five-b of such law; or

  (III) transfers described in paragraph b of subdivision six of section six hundred ninety-five-e of such law.

  (ii) Excess distributions shall be deemed attributable to deductible contributions to the extent the amount of any such excess distribution, when added to all previous excess distributions from the account, exceeds the aggregate of all nondeductible contributions to the account.

  (35) The amounts required to be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (v) of this section.

  (36) In the case of a taxpayer who is not an eligible farmer as defined in subsection (n) of section six hundred six of this article, the amount of any deduction claimed pursuant to section 179 of the internal revenue code with respect to a sport utility vehicle which is not a passenger automobile as defined in paragraph 5 of subsection (d) of section 280F of the internal revenue code.

  (37) Premiums paid for environmental remediation insurance, as defined in section twenty-three of this chapter, and deducted in determining federal taxable income, to the extent of the amount of the environmental remediation insurance credit allowed under such section twenty-three and subsection (ff) of section six hundred six of this article.

  (38) The amount of any deduction allowed pursuant to section one hundred ninety-nine of the internal revenue code.

  (39) The amount of any federal deduction for taxes imposed under article twenty-three of this chapter.

  (39-a) The amount of any federal deduction for the excise tax on telecommunication services to the extent such taxes are used as the basis of the calculation of tax-free NY area excise tax on telecommunication services credit allowed under subsection (yy) of section six hundred six of this article.

  * (40) in the case of a beneficiary of a trust that, in any tax year after its creation including its first tax year, was not subject to tax pursuant to subparagraph (D) of paragraph three of subsection (b) of section six hundred five of this article (except for an incomplete gift non-grantor trust, as defined by paragraph forty-one of this subsection), the amount described in the first sentence of section six hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code for the tax year to the extent not already included in federal gross income for the tax year, except that, in computing the amount to be added under this paragraph, such beneficiary shall disregard (i) subsection (c) of section six hundred sixty-five of the internal revenue code; (ii) the income earned by such trust in any tax year in which the trust was subject to tax under this article; and (iii) the income earned by such trust in a taxable year prior to when the beneficiary first became a resident of the state or in any taxable year starting before January first, two thousand fourteen. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all of the provisions of the internal revenue code that are relevant to computing the amount described in the first sentence of subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code shall apply to the provisions of this paragraph with the same force and effect as if the language of those internal revenue code provisions had been incorporated in full into this paragraph, except to the extent that any such provision is either inconsistent with or not relevant to this paragraph.

  * NB There are 2 par (40)'s

  * (40) The amount of any federal deduction for real property taxes to the extent such taxes are used as the basis of the calculation of the real property tax credit for manufacturers allowed under subsection (xx) of section six hundred six of this article.

  * NB There are 2 par (40)'s

  (41) In the case of a taxpayer who transferred property to an incomplete gift non-grantor trust, the income of the trust, less any deductions of the trust, to the extent such income and deductions of such trust would be taken into account in computing the taxpayer's federal taxable income if such trust in its entirety were treated as a grantor trust for federal tax purposes. For purposes of this paragraph, an "incomplete gift non-grantor trust" means a resident trust that meets the following conditions: (i) the trust does not qualify as a grantor trust under section six hundred seventy-one through six hundred seventy-nine of the internal revenue code, and (2) the grantor's transfer of assets to the trust is treated as an incomplete gift under section twenty-five hundred eleven of the internal revenue code, and the regulations thereunder.

  (42) The amount of any gain excluded from federal gross income for the taxable year by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of section 1400Z-2 of the internal revenue code.

  (c) Modifications reducing federal adjusted gross income. There shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income:

  (1) Interest income on obligations of the United States and its possessions to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes; such interest income shall include the amount received as dividends from a regulated investment company, as defined in section eight hundred fifty-one of the internal revenue code, which has been designated as the amount of such interest income in a written notice to shareholders not later than sixty days following the close of its taxable year; provided that, at the close of each quarter of the taxable year of such regulated investment company, at least fifty percent of the value of its total assets, as defined in subsection (c) of section eight hundred fifty-one of the internal revenue code, consists of obligations of the United States and its possessions. The aggregate amount so designated by the regulated investment company for its taxable year shall not exceed the amount determined by multiplying the total distributions paid by such regulated investment company to its shareholders with respect to that taxable year (attributable to income earned in that year), including any such distributions paid after the close of the taxable year, as described in section eight hundred fifty-five of the internal revenue code, by the ratio that the interest income received in that taxable year on obligations of the United States and its possessions, after reduction for the deductions and expenses directly or indirectly attributable thereto, bears to the investment company taxable income of such regulated investment company for such taxable year, determined without regard to subparagraph (D) of paragraph two of subsection (b) of section eight hundred fifty-two of the internal revenue code;

  (2) Interest or dividend income on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes but exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States;

  (3) (i) Pensions to officers and employees of this state, its subdivisions and agencies, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes;

  (ii) Pensions to officers and employees of the United States of America, any territory or possession or political subdivision of such territory or possession, the District of Columbia, or any agency or instrumentality of any one of the foregoing, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes;

  (3-a) Pensions and annuities received by an individual who has attained the age of fifty-nine and one-half, not otherwise excluded pursuant to paragraph three of this subsection, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes, but not in excess of twenty thousand dollars, which are periodic payments attributable to personal services performed by such individual prior to his retirement from employment, which arise (i) from an employer-employee relationship or (ii) from contributions to a retirement plan which are deductible for federal income tax purposes. However, the term "pensions and annuities" shall also include distributions received by an individual who has attained the age of fifty-nine and one-half from an individual retirement account or an individual retirement annuity, as defined in section four hundred eight of the internal revenue code, and distributions received by an individual who has attained the age of fifty-nine and one-half from self-employed individual and owner-employee retirement plans which qualify under section four hundred one of the internal revenue code, whether or not the payments are periodic in nature. Nevertheless, the term "pensions and annuities" shall not include any lump sum distribution, as defined in subparagraph (D) of paragraph four of subsection (e) of section four hundred two of the internal revenue code and taxed under section six hundred three of this article. Where a husband and wife file a joint state personal income tax return, the modification provided for in this paragraph shall be computed as if they were filing separate state personal income tax returns. Where a payment would otherwise come within the meaning of the term "pensions and annuities" as set forth in this paragraph, except that such individual is deceased, such payment shall, nevertheless, be treated as a pension or annuity for purposes of this paragraph if such payment is received by such individual's beneficiary.

  (3-b) (i) Disability income included in federal gross income, to the extent that such disability income would have been excluded from federal gross income pursuant to the provisions of subsection (d) of section one hundred five of the internal revenue code of nineteen hundred fifty-four had such provisions continued in effect for taxable years commencing after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-three as they were in effect immediately prior to the repeal of such subsection. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the sum of disability income excluded pursuant to this paragraph, and pension and annuity income excluded pursuant to paragraph three-a of this subsection, shall not exceed twenty thousand dollars.

  (ii) Notwithstanding subsection (f) of this section, if a husband and wife determine their federal income tax on a joint return but are required to determine their New York income taxes separately, the amounts of exclusion allowed under subparagraph (i) of this paragraph shall be determined in the same joint manner as such amounts would have been determined under the provisions of paragraph five of subsection (d) of section one hundred five of the internal revenue code as such provisions were in effect immediately prior to the repeal of such subsection, but shall be attributed for New York income tax purposes to the spouse who would have been required to report any such amount as income if the spouses had determined their federal income taxes separately.

  (iii) Where a husband and wife file a joint state income tax return, the twenty thousand dollar limitation provided in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph shall be applied as if they were filing separate state income tax returns.

  (3-c) Social security benefits to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes pursuant to section eighty-six of the internal revenue code.

  (4) The portion of any gain, from the sale or other disposition of property having a higher adjusted basis for New York income tax purposes than for federal income tax purposes on the last day of the last taxable year for which article sixteen imposes tax, as such article was in effect on such date, that does not exceed such difference in basis.

  (5) The amount necessary to prevent the taxation under this article of any annuity or other amount of income or gain which was properly included in income or gain and was taxable under article sixteen (as such article was in effect on December thirtieth, nineteen hundred sixty) to the taxpayer, or to a decedent by reason of whose death the taxpayer acquired the right to receive the income or gain, or to a trust or estate from which the taxpayer received the income or gain;

  (6) Interest or dividend income on obligations or securities to the extent exempt from income tax under the laws of this state authorizing the issuance of such obligations or securities but includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes; and

  (7) The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by this state, or any other taxing jurisdiction, and any taxes imposed by article twenty-three of this chapter, to the extent properly included in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  (8) Compensation received for active service in the armed forces of the United States on or after October first, nineteen hundred sixty-one, and prior to September first, nineteen hundred sixty-two; provided, however, that the amount of such compensation to be deducted shall not exceed one hundred dollars for each month of the taxable year, subsequent to September, nineteen hundred sixty-one, during any part of which month the taxpayer was engaged in such service. For the purposes of this paragraph, the words "active service in the armed forces of the United States" shall mean active duty (other than for training) in the army, navy (including the marine corps), air force or coast guard of the United States as defined in title ten of the United States code.

  (8-a) Compensation and bonuses received for active service in the armed forces of the United States while a prisoner of war or missing in action during the hostilities in Vietnam, to the extent includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  (8-b) Income received by an individual who is a member of the New York state organized militia, as such term is defined in subdivision one of section two of the military law, as compensation for performing active service within the state pursuant to either (i) state active duty orders issued in accordance with subdivision one of section six of the military law or (ii) active service of the United States pursuant to federal active duty orders, for service other than training, issued in accordance with title 10 of the United States code.

  (8-c) Compensation received for active service in the armed services of the United States in an area designated by the president of the United States by executive order as a "combat zone" at any time during the period designated by the president by executive order as the period of combatant activities in such zone to the extent includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  (9) Interest on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry obligations or securities the interest on which is subject to tax under this article but exempt from federal income tax, to the extent that such interest on indebtedness is not deductible in determining federal adjusted gross income and is attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.

  (10) Ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year for (i) the production or collection of income which is subject to tax under this article but exempt from federal income tax, or (ii) the management, conservation or maintenance of property held for the production of such income, and the amortizable bond premium for the taxable year on any bond the interest on which is subject to tax under this article but exempt from federal income tax, to the extent that such expenses and premiums are not deductible in determining federal adjusted gross income and are attributable to a trade or business carried on by the taxpayer.

  (11) In the case of a taxpayer who has exercised the election permitted by subsection (g) or (h) of this section, the amount or amounts required by said subsections to be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income.

  (12) The amount necessary to prevent the taxation of amounts properly included in New York adjusted gross income in prior taxable years in accordance with paragraph seven of subsection (b).

  (13) The amount required to be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (i) of this section.

  (14) The amount that may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (j) of this section.

  (15) That portion of wages and salaries paid or incurred for the taxable year for which a deduction is not allowed pursuant to the provisions of section two hundred eighty-C of the internal revenue code.

  (16) for taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, two thousand two, the amount deductible pursuant to subsection (k) of this section.

  (20) The amounts which may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (o) of this section.

  (21) In relation to the disposition of stock or indebtedness of a corporation which elected under subchapter s of chapter one of the internal revenue code for any taxable year of such corporation beginning, in the case of a corporation taxable under article nine-A of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty, the amounts required to be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (n) of this section.

  (22) In the case of a shareholder of an S corporation (A) where the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty has not been made with respect to such corporation, any item of income of the corporation included in federal gross income pursuant to section thirteen hundred sixty-six of the internal revenue code, and

  (B) in the case of a New York S termination year, subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall apply to the amounts of income determined under subsection (s) of this section.

  (23) The amounts which may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (p) of this section.

  (24) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property which is a qualified mass commuting vehicle described in subparagraph (D) of paragraph eight of subsection (f) of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code (relating to qualified mass commuting vehicles), any amount which is included in the taxpayer's federal adjusted gross income solely as a result of an election made pursuant to the provisions of such paragraph eight as it was in effect for agreements entered into prior to January first, nineteen hundred eighty-four.

  (25) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property which is a qualified mass commuting vehicle described in subparagraph (D) of paragraph eight of subsection (f) of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code (relating to qualified mass commuting vehicles), any amount which the taxpayer could have excluded from federal adjusted gross income had it not made the election provided for in such paragraph eight as it was in effect for agreements entered into prior to January first, nineteen hundred eighty-four.

  (26) In the case of property placed in service in taxable years beginning before nineteen hundred ninety-four, for taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-one, except with respect to property subject to the provisions of section two hundred eighty-F of the internal revenue code and property subject to the provisions of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code which is placed in service in this state in taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-four, an amount with respect to property which is subject to the provisions of section one hundred sixty-eight of the internal revenue code equal to the amount allowable as the depreciation deduction under section one hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code as such section would have applied to property placed in service on December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty.

  (28) Upon the disposition of property to which paragraph twenty-six of this subsection applies, the amount, if any, by which the aggregate of the modifications described in paragraph twenty-five of subsection (b) of this section attributable to such property exceeds the aggregate of the modifications described in paragraph twenty-six of this subsection attributable to such property.

  (29) Deduction for two-earner married couples. (A) For the taxable year beginning in nineteen hundred eighty-seven, in the case of a husband and wife who each have qualified earned income and who file a joint return under subsection (b) of section six hundred fifty-one for the taxable year, an amount equal to ten percent of the lesser of:

  (i) thirty thousand dollars or

  (ii) the qualified earned income of the spouse with the lower qualified earned income for such taxable year.

  (B) For purposes of this paragraph, eligibility for the deduction provided for herein and the term qualified earned income shall be determined in the manner such eligibility and such qualified earned income would have been determined pursuant to the provisions of section two hundred twenty-one of the internal revenue code of nineteen hundred fifty-four had such provisions continued in effect for taxable years commencing after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty-six as they were in effect immediately prior to the repeal of such section. Provided, however, the determination of such qualified earned income shall be made with regard only to the items therein included in New York adjusted gross income, with such adjusted gross income determined without regard to this paragraph, and only with regard to the deductions and exclusions which are of the type properly allowable to or chargeable against such qualified earned income in such taxable year.

  (30) The amount received by any person as an accelerated payment or payments of part or all of the death benefit or special surrender value under a life insurance policy as a result of any of the diagnoses specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph one of subsection (a) of section one thousand one hundred thirteen of the insurance law, and the amount received by any person as a viatical settlement pursuant to the provisions of article seventy-eight of the insurance law, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  (32) Contributions made during the taxable year by an account owner to one or more family tuition accounts established under the New York state college choice tuition savings program provided for under article fourteen-A of the education law, to the extent not deductible or eligible for credit for federal income tax purposes, provided, however, the exclusion provided for in this paragraph shall not exceed five thousand dollars for an individual or head of household, and for married couples who file joint tax returns, shall not exceed ten thousand dollars; provided, further, that such exclusion shall be available only to the account owner and not to any other person.

  (33) Distributions from a family tuition account established under the New York state college choice tuition savings program provided for under article fourteen-A of the education law, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  * (34) The portion of the fees paid during the taxable year by a taxpayer who is a resident of a continuing care retirement community, issued a certificate of authority pursuant to article forty-six of the public health law, attributable to the cost of providing long term care benefits pursuant to a continuing care contract. The portion of the fees so attributable shall be determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the superintendent of financial services. The deduction may not exceed the limitation that would be applicable to the taxpayer for the taxable year, with respect to eligible long term care premiums, determined under paragraph (10) of subsection (d) of section 213 of the internal revenue code.

  * NB There are 2 ¶(34)'s

  * (34) The amounts which may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to subsection (u) of this section.

  * NB There are 2 ¶(34)'s

  (35) Distributions, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes, made to the taxpayer because of his or her status as a victim of Nazi persecution, as defined in P.L. 103-286, or as a spouse or a descendant in need of such victim.

  (36) Items of income, to the extent includible in gross income for federal income tax purposes, attributable to, derived from or in any way related to assets stolen from, hidden from or otherwise lost to a victim of Nazi persecution, as defined in P.L. 103-286, immediately prior to, during and immediately after World War II, including, but not limited to, interest on the proceeds receivable as insurance under policies issued to a victim of Nazi persecution, as defined in P.L. 103-286, by European insurance companies immediately prior to and during World War II. Provided, however, this subtraction from federal adjusted income does not apply to assets acquired with such assets or with the proceeds from the sale of such assets. Provided, further, this paragraph shall only apply to a taxpayer who was the first recipient of such assets after their recovery and who is a victim of Nazi persecution, as defined in P.L. 103-286, or a spouse or a descendant of such victim.

  (37) In the case of a taxpayer subject to the modification provided by paragraph thirty-six of subsection (b) of this section, the amount required to be recaptured pursuant to subsection (d) of section 179 of the internal revenue code with respect to property upon which such modification was based.

  (38) An amount of up to ten thousand dollars if a taxpayer, while living, donates one or more of his or her human organs to another human being for human organ transplantation. For purposes of this paragraph, "human organ" means all or part of a liver, pancreas, kidney, intestine, lung, or bone marrow. A subtract modification allowed under this paragraph shall be claimed in the taxable year in which the human organ transplantation occurs.

  (A) A taxpayer shall claim the subtract modification allowed under this paragraph only once and such subtract modification shall be claimed for only the following unreimbursed expenses which are incurred by the taxpayer and related to the taxpayer's organ donation:

  (i) travel expenses;

  (ii) lodging expenses; and

  (iii) lost wages.

  (B) The subtract modification allowed under this paragraph shall not be claimed by a part-year resident or a non-resident of this state.

  * (39) Any income or gain, to the extent it is included in federal adjusted gross income of an individual who is the sole proprietor of a qualified entity or a member of a limited liability company, a partner in a partnership or a shareholder in a New York subchapter S corporation that is a qualified entity, attributable to the operations of a qualified entity at its location in or as part of a New York state innovation hot spot, as provided in section thirty-eight of this chapter.

  * NB There are 2 par (39)'s

  * (39) In the case of a taxpayer who is a small business who has business income and/or farm income as defined in the laws of the United States, an amount equal to three percent of the net items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to such business or farm entering into federal adjusted gross income, but not less than zero, for taxable years beginning after two thousand thirteen, an amount equal to three and three-quarters percent of the net items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to such business or farm entering into federal adjusted gross income, but not less than zero, for taxable years beginning after two thousand fourteen, and an amount equal to five percent of the net items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to such business or farm entering into federal adjusted gross income, but not less than zero, for taxable years beginning after two thousand fifteen. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term small business shall mean a sole proprietor or a farm business who employs one or more persons during the taxable year and who has net business income or net farm income of less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars.

  * NB There are 2 par (39)'s

  (40) Any wages received by an individual as an employee of a business located within a tax-free NY area during the first five years of such business's ten year taxable period specified in subdivision (a) of section thirty-nine of this chapter, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income and allowed under section thirty-nine of this chapter. During the second five years of such business's ten year taxable period, the first two hundred thousand dollars of such wages in the case of a taxpayer filing as a single individual, the first two hundred fifty thousand dollars of such wages in the case of a taxpayer filing as a head of household, and three hundred thousand dollars of such wages in the case of a taxpayer filing a joint return, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income and allowed under section thirty-nine of this chapter.

  (41) The amount of any award paid to a volunteer firefighter or volunteer ambulance worker from a length of service defined contribution plan or defined benefit plan as provided for in articles eleven-A, eleven-AA, eleven-AAA and eleven-AAAA of the general municipal law, to the extent that such award is includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes; provided, however, that such award is not distributed in the form of a lump sum distribution, as defined in subparagraph (D) of paragraph four of subsection (e) of section four hundred two of the internal revenue code and taxed under section six hundred three of this article; and provided, further, that such award is not distributed to a taxpayer who has not attained the age of fifty-nine and one-half years.

  * (42) Distributions from an eligible retirement plan, as such term is defined in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (8) of subsection (c) of section four hundred two of the Internal Revenue Code, made on or after April first, two thousand seventeen and before April second, two thousand twenty-two. In order for such distributions to be eligible to be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income under this paragraph, the following conditions must be satisfied: (A) the taxpayer's primary residence was located in the area affected by the disaster declared pursuant to executive order one hundred sixty-five of two thousand seventeen, declaring a state of emergency, dated May third, two thousand seventeen; (B) such primary residence must have incurred damage due to coastal flooding, widespread erosion and water damage caused by such disaster; (C) such damage must qualify for the casualty deduction under section one hundred sixty-five of the internal revenue code (determined without regard to whether the loss exceeds ten percent of adjusted gross income); and (D) the taxpayer during the taxable year must use the entire amount of the distributions to pay for repairs needed as a result of such damage. Provided, however, that the amount of the distributions that otherwise may be subtracted under this paragraph must be reduced by any deduction claimed by the taxpayer for such damage pursuant to section one hundred sixty-five of the internal revenue code. Provided, further, that the taxpayer shall not claim a subtraction modification under paragraph three-a of this subsection for such distribution.

  * NB There are 3 par (42)'s

  * (42) Insurance payments received by an eligible volunteer firefighter for the cancer disability benefits in section two hundred five-cc of the general municipal law to the extent includable in gross income for federal income tax purposes.

  * NB There are 3 par (42)'s

  * (42) (A) The amount of any student loan that is discharged, whether in whole or in part, if such discharge was:

  (i) pursuant to subsection (a) or (d) of section 437 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 or the parallel benefit provided pursuant to part D of title IV of such act;

  (ii) pursuant to section 464(c)(1)(F) of the Higher Education Act of 1965; or

  (iii) otherwise discharged on account of the death or total and permanent disability of the person on whose behalf the indebtedness was incurred.

  (B) For the purposes of this paragraph, "student loan" means:

  (i) a student loan as defined in section 108(f)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or

  (ii) a private education loan, as defined in section 140(7) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act.

  * NB There are 3 par (42)'s

  * (43) Pass-through entity tax deduction addback. (A) In the case of a taxpayer who claims a credit under subsection (kkk) of section six hundred six of this article, an amount equal to the amount of such credit; and (B) in the case of a taxpayer who claims a credit under subsection (b) of section six hundred twenty of this article, an amount equal to the amount of such credit as calculated without regard to the limitation under subsection (c) of section six hundred twenty of this article.

  * NB There are 2 par (43)'s

  * (43) The amount of any gain added back to federal adjusted gross income in a previous taxable year pursuant to paragraph forty-two of subdivision (b) of this section that is included in federal gross income for the taxable year.

  * NB There are 2 par (43)'s

  (44) Any death benefit, to the extent includible in federal adjusted gross income, paid to the taxpayer in a lump sum pursuant to the COVID-19 family death benefit program established by the metropolitan transportation authority in two thousand twenty; provided, however, this subtraction shall not exceed five hundred thousand dollars and shall not apply to any benefit payable under such program other than a lump sum death benefit.

  (d) Modification for New York fiduciary adjustment. There shall be added to or subtracted from federal adjusted gross income (as the case may be) the taxpayer's share, as beneficiary of an estate or trust, of the New York fiduciary adjustment determined under section six hundred nineteen.

  (e) Modifications of partners and shareholders of S corporations. (1) Partners and shareholders of S corporations which are not New York C corporations. The amounts of modifications required to be made under this section by a partner or by a shareholder of an S corporation (other than an S corporation which is a New York C corporation), which relate to partnership or S corporation items of income, gain, loss or deduction shall be determined under section six hundred seventeen and, in the case of a partner of a partnership doing an insurance business as a member of the New York insurance exchange described in section six thousand two hundred one of the insurance law, under section six hundred seventeen-a of this article.

  (2) Shareholders of S corporations which are New York C corporations. In the case of a shareholder of an S corporation which is a New York C corporation, the modifications under this section which relate to the corporation's items of income, loss and deduction shall not apply, except for the modifications provided under paragraph nineteen of subsection (b) and paragraph twenty-two of subsection (c) of this section.

  (3) New York S termination year. In the case of a New York S termination year, the amounts of the modifications required under this section which relate to the S corporation's items of income, loss, deduction and reductions for taxes (as described in paragraphs two and three of subsection (f) of section thirteen hundred sixty-six of the internal revenue code) shall be adjusted in the same manner that the S corporation's items are adjusted under subsection (s) of section six hundred twelve.

  (f) Husband and wife. If husband and wife determine their federal income tax on a joint return but are required to determine their New York income taxes separately, they shall determine their New York adjusted gross incomes separately as if their federal adjusted gross incomes had been determined separately.

  (g) Optional modifications. Subject to the conditions provided in paragraphs three and four of this subsection, at the election of the taxpayer there shall also be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income either or both of the items set forth in paragraphs one and two of this subsection, except that only one of such items shall be subtracted with respect to any one item of property, and except that a subtraction of the item set forth in such paragraph two may not be taken with respect to taxable years commencing on or after January first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven.

  (1) Depreciation with respect to any property such as described in paragraphs three or four of this subsection, and subject to the conditions provided therein, not exceeding twice the depreciation allowed with respect to the same property for federal income tax purposes. Such modification shall be allowed only upon condition that any depreciation or amortization allowed with respect to the same property in determining federal adjusted gross income shall be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to paragraph six of subsection (b) of this section. The total of all deductions allowed pursuant to this paragraph in any taxable year or years with respect to any property described in paragraph three shall not exceed its cost or other basis and, with respect to property described in paragraph four, which is used in a business carried on both within and without the state shall not exceed its cost or other basis multiplied by a percentage of the excess of the taxpayer's business income over its business deductions allocated to this state for the first year such depreciation is deducted. Such percentage shall be determined by apportionment and allocation under regulations of the tax commission.

  (2) Expenditures paid or incurred during the taxable year for the construction, reconstruction, erection or acquisition of any property such as described in paragraphs three or four of this subsection, and subject to the conditions provided therein, which is used or to be used for purposes of research and development in the experimental or laboratory sense. Such purposes shall not be deemed to include the ordinary testing or inspection of materials or products for quality control, efficiency surveys, management studies, consumer surveys, advertising, promotions or research in connection with literary, historical or similar projects. Such modification shall be allowed only on condition that, with respect to property described in paragraph four, which is used in a business carried on both within and without the state the deduction shall not exceed the expenditures multiplied by a percentage of the excess of the taxpayer's business income over its business deductions allocated to this state for the first year such expenditures are deducted. Such percentage shall be determined by apportionment and allocation under regulations of the tax commission, and for the taxable year and all succeeding taxable years, any deductions allowed for federal income tax purposes on account of such expenditures or on account of depreciation of the same property except to the extent that its basis may be attributable to factors other than such expenditures, shall be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to paragraph six of subsection (b) of this section, or in case a modification is allowable pursuant to this paragraph for only a part of such expenditures, on condition that a proportionate part of any such deductions allowed for federal income tax purposes be added to federal adjusted gross income. With respect to property which is used or to be used for research and development only in part, or during only part of its useful life, the modification allowable pursuant to this paragraph shall be limited to a proportionate part of the expenditures relating thereto. If a modification shall have been allowed pursuant to this paragraph for all or part of such expenditures with respect to any property, and such property is used for purposes other than research and development to a greater extent than originally reported, the taxpayer shall report such use in his return for the first taxable year during which it occurs, and the tax commission may recompute the tax for the year or years for which such deduction was allowed, and may assess any additional tax resulting from such recomputation within the time fixed by subsection (c) of section six hundred eighty-three of this article.

  (3) For purposes of this paragraph, such modifications shall be allowed only with respect to tangible property which is depreciable pursuant to section one hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code, having a situs in this state and used in the taxpayer's trade or business, (A) constructed, reconstructed or erected after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, and at all times thereafter, binding on the taxpayer, or, property, the physical construction, reconstruction or erection of which began on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven or which began after such date pursuant to an order placed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, and then only with respect to that portion of the basis thereof or the expenditures relating thereto which is properly attributable to such construction, reconstruction or erection after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, or (B) acquired after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, and at all times thereafter, binding on the taxpayer or pursuant to an order placed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, by purchase as defined in section one hundred seventy-nine (d) of the internal revenue code, if the original use of such property commenced with the taxpayer, commenced in this state and commenced after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, or (C) acquired, constructed, reconstructed, or erected subsequent to December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, if such acquisition, construction, reconstruction or erection is pursuant to a plan of the taxpayer which was in existence December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven and not thereafter substantially modified, and such acquisition, construction, reconstruction or erection would qualify under the rules in paragraphs four, five or six of subsection (h) of section forty-eight of the internal revenue code provided all references in such paragraphs four, five and six to the dates October nine, nineteen hundred sixty-six, and October ten, nineteen hundred sixty-six, shall be read as December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven. A taxpayer shall be allowed a deduction under clauses (A), (B) or (C) of this paragraph only if the tangible property shall be delivered or the construction, reconstruction or erection shall be completed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-nine, except in the case of tangible property which is acquired, constructed, reconstructed or erected pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, and at all times thereafter, binding on the taxpayer. However, for any taxable year beginning on or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, a taxpayer shall not be allowed a modification under paragraph one of this subsection with respect to tangible personal property leased to any other person or corporation. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any contract or agreement to lease or rent or for a license to use such property shall be considered a lease. With respect to property which a taxpayer uses for purposes other than leasing for part of a taxable year and leases for a part of a taxable year, a modification under paragraph one shall be allowed in proportion to the part of the year such property is used by the taxpayer.

  (4) For purposes of this paragraph, such modifications shall be allowed only with respect to tangible property which is depreciable pursuant to section one hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code, having a situs in this state and used in the taxpayer's trade or business. The modifications provided for in paragraph one of this subsection shall be allowed only with respect to tangible property which is (A) constructed, reconstructed or erected after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, and at all times thereafter, binding on the taxpayer or, property, the physical construction, reconstruction or erection of which began on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight or which began after such date pursuant to an order placed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, and then only with respect to that portion of the basis thereof or the expenditures relating thereto which is properly attributable to such construction, reconstruction or erection after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, or (B) acquired after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, and at all times thereafter, binding on the taxpayer or pursuant to an order placed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, by purchase as defined in section one hundred seventy-nine (d) of the internal revenue code, if the original use of such property commenced with the taxpayer, commenced in this state and commenced after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, or (C) acquired, constructed, reconstructed, or erected subsequent to December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, if such acquisition, construction, reconstruction or erection is pursuant to a plan of the taxpayer which was in existence December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, and not thereafter substantially modified, and such acquisition, construction, reconstruction or erection would qualify under the rules in paragraphs four, five or six of subsection (h) of section forty-eight of the internal revenue code provided all references in such paragraphs four, five and six to the dates October nine, nineteen hundred sixty-six, and October ten, nineteen hundred sixty-six, shall be read as December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight. A taxpayer shall be allowed a deduction under clauses (A), (B) or (C) of the preceding sentence of this paragraph only if the tangible property shall be delivered or the construction, reconstruction or erection shall be completed on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred seventy, except in the case of tangible property which is acquired, constructed, reconstructed or erected pursuant to a contract which was, on or before December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, and at all times thereafter binding on the taxpayer. The modification provided for in paragraph two of this subsection shall be allowed only with respect to tangible property, (A) the construction, reconstruction or erection of which is completed after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, and then only with respect to that portion of the basis thereof or the expenditures relating thereto which is properly attributable to such construction, reconstruction or erection after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three, or (B) acquired after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven, by purchase as defined in section one hundred seventy-nine (d) of the internal revenue code, if the original use of such property commenced with the taxpayer, commenced in this state and commenced after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-three. Provided, however, a modification under paragraph one of this subsection shall be allowed with respect to property described in this paragraph only on condition that such property shall be principally used by the taxpayer in the production of goods by manufacturing; processing; assembling; refining; mining; extracting; farming; agriculture; horticulture; floriculture; viticulture; or commercial fishing. For purposes of the preceding sentence, manufacturing shall mean the process of working raw materials into wares suitable for use or which gives new shapes, new qualities or new combinations to matter which already has gone through some artificial process by the use of machinery, tools, appliances and other similar equipment. Property used in the production of goods shall include machinery, equipment or other tangible property which is principally used in the repair and service of other machinery, equipment or other tangible property used principally in the production of goods and shall include all facilities used in the manufacturing operation, including storage of material to be used in manufacturing and of the products that are manufactured. At the option of the taxpayer, air and water pollution control facilities which qualify for elective deductions under subsection (h) of section six hundred twelve may be treated, for purposes of this paragraph, as tangible property principally used in the production of goods by manufacturing; processing; assembling; refining; mining; extracting; farming; agriculture; horticulture; floriculture; viticulture; or commercial fishing, in which event, a deduction shall not be allowed under such subsection (h). However, for any taxable year beginning on or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-eight, a taxpayer shall not be allowed a modification under paragraph one of this subsection with respect to tangible personal property leased to any other person or corporation. For purposes of the preceding sentence, any contract or agreement to lease or rent or for a license to use such property shall be considered a lease. With respect to property which a taxpayer uses for purposes other than leasing for part of a taxable year and leases for a part of a taxable year, a modification under paragraph one shall be allowed in proportion to the part of the year such property is used by the taxpayer.

  (5) If the modifications allowable for any taxable year pursuant to this subsection exceed the taxpayer's New York adjusted gross income, determined without the allowance of such modifications, the excess may be carried over to the following taxable year or years and may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income for such year or years provided, however, that in no event shall such excess, insofar as it reflects subtractions taken with respect to items set forth in paragraph two of this subsection, be carried over to taxable years commencing on or after January first, nineteen hundred ninety-four.

  (6) In any taxable year when property is sold or otherwise disposed of, with respect to which a modification has been allowed pursuant to paragraph one or two of this subsection, the basis of such property shall be adjusted to reflect the modifications so allowed, and if the basis as so adjusted is lower than the adjusted basis of the same property for federal income tax purposes, there shall be added to federal adjusted gross income the amount of the difference between such adjusted bases.

  (h) Optional modification for waste treatment facility expenditures. For taxable years commencing prior to January first, nineteen hundred eighty-seven, at the election of the taxpayer, there shall also be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income expenditures paid or incurred during the taxable year for the construction, reconstruction, erection or improvement of industrial waste treatment facilities and air pollution control facilities.

  (1) (A) The term "industrial waste treatment facilities" shall mean facilities for the treatment, neutralization, or stabilization of industrial waste and other wastes (as the terms "industrial waste" and "other wastes" are defined in section 17-0105 of the environmental conservation law) from a point immediately preceding the point of such treatment, neutralization or stabilization to the point of disposal, including the necessary pumping and transmitting facilities.

  (B) The term "air pollution control facilities" shall mean facilities which remove, reduce, or render less noxious air contaminants emitted from an air contamination source (as the terms "air contaminant" and "air contamination source" are defined in section 19-0107 of the environmental conservation law) from a point immediately preceding the point of such removal, reduction or rendering to the point of discharge of air, meeting emission standards as established by the department of environmental conservation but excluding such facilities installed for the primary purpose of salvaging materials which are usable in the manufacturing process or are marketable and excluding those facilities which rely for their efficacy on dilution, dispersion or assimilation of air contaminants in the ambient air after emission. Such term shall further include flue gas desulfurization equipment and attendant sludge disposal facilities, fluidized bed boilers, precombustion coal cleaning facilities or other facilities that conform with this subdivision and which comply with the provisions of the state acid deposition control act set forth in title nine of article nineteen of the environmental conservation law.

  (2) Such modifications shall be allowed only

  (A) with respect to tangible property which is depreciable, pursuant to section one hundred sixty-seven of the internal revenue code, having a situs in this state and used in the taxpayer's trade or business, the construction, reconstruction, erection or improvement of which, in the case of industrial waste treatment facilities, is initiated on or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-five, or which, in the case of air pollution control facilities, is initiated on or after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-six, and

  (B) on condition that such facilities have been certified by the state commissioner of environmental conservation or his designated representative, pursuant to section 19-0309 of the environmental conservation law, as complying with the applicable provisions of the environmental conservation law, the public health law, the state sanitary code and codes, rules, regulations, permits or orders promulgated pursuant thereto, and

  (C) on condition that for the taxable year and all succeeding taxable years, any deductions allowed for federal income tax purposes for such expenditures or for depreciation or amortization of the same property, except to the extent that its basis may be attributable to factors other than such expenditures, be added to federal adjusted gross income pursuant to paragraph five of subsection (b) of this section, or in case a modification is allowable pursuant to this paragraph for only a part of such expenditures, on condition that a proportionate amount of any such deductions allowed for federal income tax purposes be added to federal adjusted gross income, and

  (D) where the election provided for in subsection (g) of section six hundred twelve has not been exercised in respect to the same property.

  (3) (A) If expenditures in respect to an industrial waste treatment facility or an air pollution control facility have been allowed as a modification as provided herein and if within ten years from the end of the taxable year in which such modification was allowed such property or any part thereof is used for the primary purpose of salvaging materials which are usable in the manufacturing process or are marketable, the taxpayer shall report such change of use in its return for the first taxable year during which it occurs, and the tax commission may recompute the tax for the year or years for which such modification was allowed, and may assess any additional tax resulting from such recomputation within the time fixed by paragraph eight of subsection (c) of section six hundred eighty-three.

  (B) If a modification is allowed as herein provided for expenditures paid or incurred during any taxable year on the basis of a temporary certificate of compliance issued pursuant to the environmental conservation law, and if the taxpayer fails to obtain a permanent certificate of compliance upon completion of the facilities with respect to which such temporary certificate was issued, the taxpayer shall report such failure in its report for the taxable year during which such facilities are completed, and the tax commission may recompute the tax for the year or years for which such modification was allowed, and may assess any additional tax resulting from such recomputation within the time fixed by paragraph eight of subsection (c) of section six hundred eighty-three.

  (C) If a modification is allowed as herein provided for expenditures paid or incurred during any taxable year in respect to an air pollution control facility on the basis of a certificate of compliance issued pursuant to the environmental conservation law and the certificate is revoked pursuant to subdivision three of section 19-0309 of the environmental conservation law, the tax commission may recompute the tax for the year or years for which the facility is not or was not in compliance with the applicable provisions of the environmental conservation law, the state sanitary code or codes, rules, regulations, permits or orders issued pursuant thereto, and for which a modification was allowed, and may assess any additional tax resulting from such recomputation within the time fixed by paragraph eight of subsection (c) of section six hundred eighty-three.

  (4) In any taxable year when property is sold or otherwise disposed of, with respect to which a modification has been allowed pursuant to this paragraph, such modification shall be disregarded in computing gain or loss, and the gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of such property shall be the gain or loss entering into the computation of federal adjusted gross income for such taxable year.

  (i) In the case of mines, oil and gas wells and other natural deposits, any allowance for percentage depletion pursuant to section six hundred thirteen or section six hundred thirteen A of the internal revenue code shall be added to federal adjusted gross income. However, with respect to the property as to which such addition to federal adjusted gross income is required, an allowance for depletion shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income in the amount that would be deductible under section six hundred eleven of such code if the deduction for an allowance for depletion were computed without reference to such section six hundred thirteen or section six hundred thirteen A. With respect to the computation of depletion pursuant to this subsection, the basis for such computation for taxable years beginning in nineteen hundred seventy-two shall be the federal basis. For subsequent taxable years, the basis for such computation shall be reduced only by the deduction for the allowance for depletion deductible pursuant to this subsection. The portion of any gain from the sale or other disposition of such property having a higher adjusted basis for New York income tax purposes than for federal income tax purposes, that does not exceed such difference in basis, shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income.

  (j) Modification for nonpublic school tuition. (1) General. An individual shall be entitled to subtract from his federal adjusted gross income an amount shown in the table set forth in this paragraph for his New York adjusted gross income for the taxable year, computed without the benefit of this modification, multiplied by the number of his dependents, not exceeding three, attending a nonpublic school on a full-time basis for at least four months during the regular school year for the education of such dependent in grades one through twelve, provided such individual is allowed an exemption under section six hundred sixteen for such dependent. Provided, further, that the modification under this paragraph may be taken only if such individual has paid at least fifty dollars for each such dependent in tuition to such nonpublic school for such education of such dependent. No taxpayer shall be entitled to the modification provided for in this paragraph if he claims a tuition reimbursement payment pursuant to article twelve-A of the education law.

  If New York The amount adjusted gross allowable for each

  income is: dependent is: Less than $9,000 $1,000 9,000--10,999 850 11,000--12,999 700 13,000--14,999 550 15,000--16,999 400 17,000--18,999 250 19,000--20,999 150 21,000--22,999 125 23,000--24,999 100 25,000 and over --0--

  (2) Husband and wife. In determining the applicable New York adjusted gross income of a husband and wife for purposes of the table set forth in paragraph one of this subsection, the New York adjusted gross income of a husband and wife shall be the aggregate of their New York adjusted gross incomes for the taxable year, determined without the benefit of the modification provided for in this subsection, and the number of dependents with respect to which this modification may be claimed shall be no more than three in the aggregate.

  (3) Definitions. (A) "Tuition", as used in this subsection, shall mean the amount actually paid during the taxable year by the taxpayer for the enrollment of a dependent during the regular school year at a nonpublic school.

  (B) "Nonpublic school", as used in this subsection, shall mean any non-profit elementary or secondary school in the state of New York, other than a public school, which (i) is providing instruction in accordance with article seventeen and section thirty-two hundred four of the education law, (ii) has not been found to be in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of nineteen hundred sixty-four, 78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. § 2000 (d) and (iii) which is entitled to a tax exemption under sections five hundred one (a) and five hundred one (c) (3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code of nineteen hundred fifty-four, as amended. The commissioner of education shall furnish to the state tax commission by February first of each year, a certified list of nonpublic schools which comply with clause (i) of this subparagraph for the preceding calendar year and shall provide such other assistance with respect to whether nonpublic schools come within clause (i) as the state tax commission may require.

  (C) "Regular school year", as used in this subsection, shall mean the months of the taxable year exclusive of July and August.

  (4) Additional information. Any claim for a modification under this subsection shall be accompanied by such information as the tax commission may require.

  (k) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, two thousand two, in the case of qualified property described in paragraph two of subsection k of section 168 of the internal revenue code, other than qualified resurgence zone property described in subsection (m) of this section, and other than qualified New York Liberty Zone property described in paragraph two of subsection b of section 1400L of the internal revenue code (without regard to clause (i) of subparagraph (C) of such paragraph), which was placed in service on or after June first, two thousand three, a taxpayer shall be allowed with respect to such property the depreciation deduction allowable under section 167 of the internal revenue code as such section would have applied to such property had it been acquired by the taxpayer on September tenth, two thousand one.

  (l) For taxable years beginning after December thirty-first, two thousand two, upon the disposition of property to which subsection (k) of this section applies, the amount of any gain or loss includible in federal adjusted income shall be adjusted to reflect the inclusions and exclusions from federal adjusted income pursuant to paragraph eight of subsection (b) and paragraph sixteen of subsection (c) of this section attributable to such property.

  (m) For purposes of subsections (k) and (l) of this section, qualified resurgence zone property shall mean qualified property described in paragraph two of subsection k of section 168 of the internal revenue code substantially all of the use of which is in the resurgence zone, as defined below, and is in the active conduct of a trade or business by the taxpayer in such zone, and the original use of which in the resurgence zone commences with the taxpayer after December thirty-first, two thousand two. The resurgence zone shall mean the area of New York county bounded on the south by a line running from the intersection of the Hudson River with the Holland Tunnel, and running thence east to Canal Street, then running along the centerline of Canal Street to the intersection of the Bowery and Canal Street, running thence in a southeasterly direction diagonally across Manhattan Bridge Plaza, to the Manhattan Bridge and thence along the centerline of the Manhattan Bridge to the point where the centerline of the Manhattan Bridge would intersect with the easterly bank of the East River, and bounded on the north by a line running from the intersection of the Hudson River with the Holland Tunnel and running thence north along West Avenue to the intersection of Clarkson Street then running east along the centerline of Clarkson Street to the intersection of Washington Avenue, then running south along the centerline of Washington Avenue to the intersection of West Houston Street, then east along the centerline of West Houston Street, then at the intersection of the Avenue of the Americas continuing east along the centerline of East Houston Street to the easterly bank of the East River.

  (n) Where gain or loss is recognized for federal income tax purposes upon the disposition of stock or indebtedness of a corporation electing under subchapter s of chapter one of the internal revenue code

  (1) There shall be added to federal adjusted gross income the amount of increase in basis with respect to such stock or indebtedness pursuant to subsection (a) of section thirteen hundred seventy-six of the internal revenue code as such section was in effect for taxable years beginning before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-three and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph one of subsection (a) of section thirteen hundred sixty-seven of such code, for each taxable year of the corporation beginning, in the case of a corporation taxable under article nine-A of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty, and in the case of a corporation taxable under article thirty-two of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-six, for which the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty of this article was not in effect, and

  (2) There shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income

  (A) the amount of reduction in basis with respect to such stock or indebtedness pursuant to subsection (b) of section thirteen hundred seventy-six of the internal revenue code as such section was in effect for taxable years beginning before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-three and subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph two of subsection (a) of section thirteen hundred sixty-seven of such code, for each taxable year of the corporation beginning, in the case of a corporation taxable under article nine-A of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred eighty, and in the case of a corporation taxable under article thirty-two of this chapter, after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-six, for which the election provided for in subsection (a) of section six hundred sixty of this article was not in effect and

  (B) the amount of any modifications to federal gross income with respect to such stock pursuant to paragraph twenty of subsection (b) of this section.

  (o) Modifications for new business investment gains and certain new business investments.

  1. For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

  (A) "New business investment gain" means gain from the sale of a new business investment issued to the taxpayer before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight, if:

  (i) such new business investment is, in the hands of the person selling the same (whether or not the taxpayer), a capital asset as defined in section 1221 of the internal revenue code of nineteen hundred fifty-four, as amended, and

  (ii) such new business investment was held by such person for the period specified in paragraph two of this subsection.

  (B) "New business" means a corporation or partnership organized or formed under the laws of any state which:

  (i) adopts a plan on or after July first, nineteen hundred eighty-one and before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight, to conduct a new business within the meaning and intent of this section and to issue new business investments, as defined in this subsection, and

  (ii) is, at the date of adoption of such plan, subject to taxation (whether or not any amount is owing) under section one hundred eighty-three, one hundred eighty-four or one hundred eighty-six of article nine of this chapter, or under article nine-a of this chapter or article twenty-three of this chapter, or would have been subject to tax under article twenty-three (as such article was in effect on January first, nineteen hundred eighty) if such article were still in effect, and the first taxable period for which such new business became subject to such taxation commenced on or after July first, nineteen hundred eighty-one and before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight, and such first taxable period includes the date of adoption of such plan; if not so subject to taxation, the new business must be subject to taxation under such sections or articles for the first time within one year from the date of adoption of such plan, and

  (iii) is conducted (or will be conducted, as evidenced by such plan) whereby at least ninety percent of the assets (valued at original cost) are located and employed in this state and eighty percent of the employees (as ascertained within the meaning and intent of subparagraph three of paragraph (a) of subdivision three of section two hundred ten of this chapter and, in addition, in the case of a partnership, excluding partners) are principally employed in this state during each taxable period, or part thereof, as required by clause (iv) of this subparagraph, and

  (iv) within ninety days after the adoption of such plan, or, if a return is required, as part of such return, under such article nine, article nine-A or article twenty-three (as such article was in effect on or before December thirtieth, nineteen hundred eighty-two), whichever is sooner, shall file a new business certificate with the state tax commission attesting to whether it meets, if subject to taxation under such articles, or intends to meet, if not so subject, all of the conditions stated in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph within the time set forth therein. Thereafter, during the first four taxable years of such new business, along with, and as part of, any return required under such articles, such new business shall make and file a new business certificate for the period covered by such return attesting to whether it has met the conditions specified in this subparagraph during the taxable period covered by such return. If no return is required under such articles, such certificate shall be filed annually on or before the fifteenth day of March which shall cover the twelve consecutive calendar month period ending on the last day of December immediately preceding such March fifteenth. If such new business fails to meet such conditions specified in this subparagraph, it shall, in addition, give notice of this fact, within the time prescribed by the state tax commission, to the holders of its "new business investments." The state tax commission shall prescribe the form and content of such new business certification and may require a new business to file such certificate for periods (even if no return is filed or required, but for this section) covering up to eight years from the date of adoption of such plan, as in its discretion, it deems the same necessary for the enforcement of this subparagraph, and

  (v) Special rules:

  (1) For any taxable period, in order to constitute a new business, a business enterprise must have derived more than sixty percent of its aggregate gross receipts from sources other than royalties, rents, dividends, interest, annuities and sales or exchanges of stock or securities.

  (2) A new business does not include (i) any new business of which twenty-five percent or more of the number of shares of stock that entitle the holders thereof to vote for the election of directors or trustees is owned, directly or indirectly, by a taxpayer subject to tax under section one hundred eighty-three, one hundred eighty-four, one hundred eighty-five or one hundred eighty-six of article nine of this chapter, or under article nine-A, thirty-two or thirty-three of this chapter or (ii) any new business substantially similar in operation and in ownership, directly or indirectly, to a business entity (or entities) taxable, or previously taxable, under such sections, such articles, article twenty-three or which would have been subject to tax under article twenty-three (as such article was in effect on January first, nineteen hundred eighty) or the income (or losses) of which is (or was) includable under article twenty-two whereby the intent and purpose of this subsection would be evaded.

  (C) "New business investment" means and includes the following investments issued before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight by a new business pursuant to a plan described in clause (i) of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph for money or other property (other than stock or securities) on or before the expiration of the third taxable year of such new business (excluding any short period immediately preceding such taxable year because the new business was not in existence for an entire taxable year) or forty-two months from the adoption of such plan, whichever is sooner: (i) original issuance capital stock as part of a new issue, (ii) other original issuance securities of a new issue of a like nature as stocks which are designed as a means of investment and issued for the purpose of financing corporate enterprises and providing for a distribution of rights in such enterprises, (iii) debt obligations such as bonds and debentures for a term of at least one year, whether secured or unsecured, and (iv) certificates and other instruments representing proprietary interests, whether limited or otherwise, in and assumption of general liabilities, whether limited or otherwise, of a partnership enterprise.

  2. A taxpayer may subtract from his federal adjusted gross income a portion of an amount constituting a new business investment gain, as follows:

   If new business The modification is equal to the

   investment held for: following proportion of the gain

   includable in federal adjusted

   gross income:

   At least four years, but

   less than five years twenty-five percent

   At least five years, but

   less than six years fifty percent

   At least six years one hundred percent

  3. Where, within six months of the realization of a new business investment gain allowable as the basis of a modification under paragraph two of this subsection, such modification is equal to less than one hundred percent of the portion of the gain includable in federal adjusted gross income and the taxpayer purchases a new business investment which is then held for a period of at least six months, the taxpayer may subtract from his federal adjusted gross income ten percent (but not an amount that will reduce the portion of such gain included in his New York income below zero) of the amount of such gain where the purchase price of the new business investment is equal to or greater than the proceeds of the sale giving rise to such gain. Where the purchase price of the new business investment is less than an amount equal to the proceeds of such sale, the modification allowable under this paragraph shall be equal to ten percent of an amount equal to the product of (A) the amount of the gain and (B) a fraction the numerator of which is the purchase price of the new investment and the denominator of which is an amount equal to the proceeds of such sale. The modification allowable under this paragraph may be utilized, at the option of the taxpayer, with respect to the taxable year in which the new business investment gain is realized or the year containing the last day of the six-month retention period described in this paragraph.

  4. The state tax commission may prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subdivision.

  (p) New business investment deferral. For taxable years beginning before January first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight, at the option of the taxpayer, there may be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income a reinvested amount of long-term capital gain realized in a taxable year from the sale of a capital asset, as such term is defined in section 1221 of the internal revenue code, which is not a new business investment. A reinvested amount of long-term capital gain shall mean an amount which bears the same ratio to the long-term capital gain realized from the sale of a capital asset which was includable in New York adjusted gross income as that portion of the sale proceeds which is reinvested, within one year from date of sale, in a New York new business bears to the total sale proceeds. For the purposes of this subsection, a New York new business is a business enterprise which (1) has been a taxpayer under this article for no more than three taxable years (including short taxable years), (2) over fifty percent of the number of shares of stock that entitle the holders thereof to vote for the election of directors or trustees is not owned, directly or indirectly, by a taxpayer subject to tax under section one hundred eighty-three, one hundred eighty-four, one hundred eighty-five or one hundred eighty-six of article nine of this chapter, or under article nine-A, thirty-two or thirty-three of this chapter, (3) is not substantially similar in operation or ownership, directly or indirectly, to a business entity (or entities) taxable, or previously taxable, under such sections, such articles, article twenty-three or which would have been subject to tax under article twenty-three (as such article was in effect on January first, nineteen hundred eighty) or the income (or losses) of which is (or was) includable under article twenty-two whereby the intent and purpose of this subsection would be evaded, (4) locates and employs at least ninety percent of its assets in the state, (5) employs principally in the state eighty percent of its employees (as ascertained within the meaning and intent of subparagraph three of paragraph (a) of subdivision three of section two hundred ten of this chapter and, in addition, in the case of a partnership, excluding partners), (6) derives less than forty percent of its gross income from dividends, interest, royalties (other than mineral, oil, or gas royalties or copyright royalties), and annuities and (7) reports at least twenty-five hundred dollars in gross income in any taxable year. The reinvested amount must qualify as a capital asset as defined in section 1221 of the internal revenue code and must be retained by the taxpayer for at least twelve months. The modification allowable under this subsection shall be utilized with respect to the taxable year in which the twelve month retention period ends. The commissioner of taxation and finance may require annual information reports on the investments in new businesses made pursuant to this subsection, and such other reports as he may require to ensure against the evasion of the intent and purposes of this subsection.

  (q) An amount deferred under subsection (p) hereof shall be added to federal adjusted gross income when the reinvestment in the New York new business which qualified a taxpayer for such deferral is sold.

  (r) Related members expense add back. (1) Definitions. (A) Related member. "Related member" means a related person as defined in subparagraph (c) of paragraph three of subsection (b) of section four hundred sixty-five of the internal revenue code, except that "fifty percent" shall be substituted for "ten percent".

  (B) Effective rate of tax. "Effective rate of tax" means, as to any state or U.S. possession, the maximum statutory rate of tax imposed by the state or possession on or measured by a related member's net income multiplied by the apportionment percentage, if any, applicable to the related member under the laws of said jurisdiction. For purposes of this definition, the effective rate of tax as to any state or U.S. possession is zero where the related member's net income tax liability in said jurisdiction is reported on a combined or consolidated return including both the taxpayer and the related member where the reported transactions between the taxpayer and the related member are eliminated or offset. Also, for purposes of this definition, when computing the effective rate of tax for a jurisdiction in which a related member's net income is eliminated or offset by a credit or similar adjustment that is dependent upon the related member either maintaining or managing intangible property or collecting interest income in that jurisdiction, the maximum statutory rate of tax imposed by said jurisdiction shall be decreased to reflect the statutory rate of tax that applies to the related member as effectively reduced by such credit or similar adjustment.

  (C) Royalty payments. Royalty payments are payments directly connected to the acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange, or any other disposition of licenses, trademarks, copyrights, trade names, trade dress, service marks, mask works, trade secrets, patents and any other similar types of intangible assets as determined by the commissioner, and include amounts allowable as interest deductions under section one hundred sixty-three of the internal revenue code to the extent such amounts are directly or indirectly for, related to or in connection with the acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange or disposition of such intangible assets.

  (D) Valid business purpose. A valid business purpose is one or more business purposes, other than the avoidance or reduction of taxation, which alone or in combination constitute the primary motivation for some business activity or transaction, which activity or transaction changes in a meaningful way, apart from tax effects, the economic position of the taxpayer. The economic position of the taxpayer includes an increase in the market share of the taxpayer, or the entry by the taxpayer into new business markets.

  (2) Royalty expense add backs. (A) For the purpose of computing New York adjusted gross income, a taxpayer must add back royalty payments directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred in connection with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members during the taxable year to the extent deductible in calculating federal taxable income.

  (B) Exceptions. (i) The adjustment required in this subsection shall not apply to the portion of the royalty payment that the taxpayer establishes, by clear and convincing evidence of the type and in the form specified by the commissioner, meets all of the following requirements: (I) the related member was subject to tax in this state or another state or possession of the United States or a foreign nation or some combination thereof on a tax base that included the royalty payment paid, accrued or incurred by the taxpayer; (II) the related member during the same taxable year directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred such portion to a person that is not a related member; and (III) the transaction giving rise to the royalty payment between the taxpayer and the related member was undertaken for a valid business purpose.

  (ii) The adjustment required in this subsection shall not apply if the taxpayer establishes, by clear and convincing evidence of the type and in the form specified by the commissioner, that: (I) the related member was subject to tax on or measured by its net income in this state or another state or possession of the United States or some combination thereof; (II) the tax base for said tax included the royalty payment paid, accrued or incurred by the taxpayer; and (III) the aggregate effective rate of tax applied to the related member in those jurisdictions is no less than eighty percent of the statutory rate of tax that applied to the taxpayer under section six hundred one of this article for the taxable year.

  (iii) The adjustment required in this subsection shall not apply if the taxpayer establishes, by clear and convincing evidence of the type and in the form specified by the commissioner, that: (I) the royalty payment was paid, accrued or incurred to a related member organized under the laws of a country other than the United States; (II) the related member's income from the transaction was subject to a comprehensive income tax treaty between such country and the United States; (III) the related member was subject to tax in a foreign nation on a tax base that included the royalty payment paid, accrued or incurred by the taxpayer; (IV) the related member's income from the transaction was taxed in such country at an effective tax rate at least equal to that imposed by this state; and (V) the royalty payment was paid, accrued or incurred pursuant to a transaction that was undertaken for a valid business purpose and using terms that reflect an arm's length relationship.

  (iv) The adjustment required in this subsection shall not apply if the taxpayer and the commissioner agree in writing to the application or use of alternative adjustments or computations. The commissioner may, in his or her discretion, agree to the application or use of alternative adjustments or computations when he or she concludes that in the absence of such agreement the income of the taxpayer would not be properly reflected.

  (s) New York S termination year. (1) General. In the case of a New York S termination year, the amount of any item of S corporation income, loss and deduction included in the shareholder's federal adjusted gross income and any reductions for taxes (as described in paragraphs two and three of subsection (f) of section thirteen hundred sixty-six of the internal revenue code) shall be adjusted in accordance with the treatment provided in paragraph two or three of this subsection.

  (2) Pro rata allocation. Unless paragraph three of this subsection applies, an equal portion of each S corporation item shall be assigned to each day of the S corporation's taxable year for federal income tax purposes. The portion of each such item thereby assigned to the S short year shall be treated as an item of a New York S corporation, and the portion of each such item thereby assigned to the C short year shall be treated as an item of an S corporation which is a New York C corporation.

  (3) Normal tax accounting. The portion of each S corporation item assigned to the S short year and the C short year shall be determined using normal tax accounting rules if:

  (A) there is a sale or exchange of fifty percent or more of the stock in such corporation during the New York S termination year; or

  (B) the corporation so elects, in the manner the commissioner may provide. No election under this subparagraph shall be effective unless all persons who are shareholders during the S short year and all persons who are shareholders on the first day of the C short year consent to such election.

  (u) Emerging technology investment deferral. In the case of any sale of a qualified emerging technologies investment held for more than thirty-six months and with respect to which the taxpayer elects the application of this subsection, gain from such sale shall be recognized only to the extent that the amount realized on such sale exceeds the cost of any qualified emerging technologies investment purchased by the taxpayer during the three hundred sixty-five-day period beginning on the date of such sale, reduced by any portion of such cost previously taken into account under this subsection. For purposes of this subsection the following shall apply:

  (1) A qualified investment is stock of a corporation or an interest, other than as a creditor, in a partnership or limited liability company that was acquired by the taxpayer as provided in Internal Revenue Code § 1202(c)(1)(B), except that the reference to the term "stock" in such section shall be read as "investment," or by the taxpayer from a person who had acquired such stock or interest in such a manner.

  (2) A qualified emerging technology investment is a qualified investment, that was held by the taxpayer for at least thirty-six months, in a company defined in paragraph (c) of subdivision one of section thirty-one hundred two-e of the public authorities law or an investment in a partnership or limited liability company that is taxed as a partnership to the extent that such partnership or limited liability company invests in qualified emerging technology companies.

  (3) For purposes of determining whether the nonrecognition of gain under this subsection applies to a qualified emerging technologies investment that is sold, the taxpayer's holding period for such investment and the qualified emerging technologies investment that is purchased shall be determined without regard to Internal Revenue Code § 1223.

  (v) Amounts deferred. The amount deferred under subsection (u) of this section shall be added to federal adjusted gross income when the reinvestment in the New York qualified emerging technology company which qualified a taxpayer for such deferral is sold.

  (w) Alimony modifications. (1) In the case of applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments, the following modifications shall apply:

  (A) There shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income any applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments made by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

  (B) There shall be added to federal adjusted gross income any applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments received by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

  (2) (A) The term "alimony or separate maintenance payments" means payments as defined under section seventy-one of the internal revenue code in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Public Law 115-97.

  (B) The term "applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments" means payments made under an alimony or separation instrument (as defined in section seventy-one of the internal revenue code in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Public Law 115-97) that was executed after December thirty-first, two thousand eighteen, and any divorce or separation instrument executed on or before such date and modified after such date if the modification expressly provides that the amendments made by this section apply to such modification.

  (x) Qualified moving expense reimbursement and moving expenses. (1) In the case of applicable qualified moving expense reimbursement and moving expenses, the following modifications shall apply:

  (A) There shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income any applicable qualified moving expense reimbursement received by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

  (B) There shall be subtracted from federal adjusted gross income any applicable moving expenses paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

  (2) Applicable qualified moving expense reimbursement and moving expenses are those deductions as allowed by paragraph (g) of sections one hundred thirty-two and section two hundred seventeen, respectfully, of the internal revenue code immediately prior to the enactment of Public Law 115-97.