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This entry was published on 2014-09-22
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Reproductions of original
Civil Practice Law & Rules (CVP) CHAPTER 8, ARTICLE 45
Rule 4539. Reproductions of original. (a) If any business,
institution, or member of a profession or calling, in the regular course
of business or activity has made, kept or recorded any writing, entry,
print or representation and in the regular course of business has
recorded, copied, or reproduced it by any process, including
reproduction, which accurately reproduces or forms a durable medium for
reproducing the original, such reproduction, when satisfactorily
identified, is as admissible in evidence as the original, whether the
original is in existence or not, and an enlargement or facsimile of such
reproduction is admissible in evidence if the original reproduction is
in existence and available for inspection under direction of the court.
The introduction of a reproduction does not preclude admission of the

(b) A reproduction created by any process which stores an image of any
writing, entry, print or representation and which does not permit
additions, deletions, or changes without leaving a record of such
additions, deletions, or changes, when authenticated by competent
testimony or affidavit which shall include the manner or method by which
tampering or degradation of the reproduction is prevented, shall be as
admissible in evidence as the original.